J. Semicond. > Volume 39 > Issue 1 > Article Number: 011007

Graphene-based flexible and wearable electronics

Tanmoy Das , , Bhupendra K. Sharma , , Ajit K. Katiyar and Jong-Hyun Ahn ,

+ Author Affilications + Find other works by these authors

PDF

Turn off MathJax

Abstract: Graphene with an exceptional combination of electronic, optical and outstanding mechanical features has been proved to lead a completely different kind of 2-D electronics. The most exciting feature of graphene is its ultra-thin thickness, that can be conformally contacted to any kind of rough surface without losing much of its transparency and conductivity. Graphene has been explored demonstrating various prototype flexible electronic applications, however, its potentiality has been proven wherever transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are needed in a flexible, stretchable format. Graphene-based TCEs in flexible electronic applications showed greatly superior performance over their conventionally available competitor indium tin oxide (ITO). Moreover, enormous applications have been emerging, especially in wearable devices that can be potentially used in our daily life as well as in biomedical areas. However, the production of high-quality, defect-free large area graphene is still a challenge and the main hurdle in the commercialization of flexible and wearable products. The objective of the present review paper is to summarize the progress made so far in graphene-based flexible and wearable applications. The current developments including challenges and future perspectives are also highlighted.

Key words: grapheneflexible electronicswearable electronicstransparent conductive electrode

Abstract: Graphene with an exceptional combination of electronic, optical and outstanding mechanical features has been proved to lead a completely different kind of 2-D electronics. The most exciting feature of graphene is its ultra-thin thickness, that can be conformally contacted to any kind of rough surface without losing much of its transparency and conductivity. Graphene has been explored demonstrating various prototype flexible electronic applications, however, its potentiality has been proven wherever transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are needed in a flexible, stretchable format. Graphene-based TCEs in flexible electronic applications showed greatly superior performance over their conventionally available competitor indium tin oxide (ITO). Moreover, enormous applications have been emerging, especially in wearable devices that can be potentially used in our daily life as well as in biomedical areas. However, the production of high-quality, defect-free large area graphene is still a challenge and the main hurdle in the commercialization of flexible and wearable products. The objective of the present review paper is to summarize the progress made so far in graphene-based flexible and wearable applications. The current developments including challenges and future perspectives are also highlighted.

Key words: grapheneflexible electronicswearable electronicstransparent conductive electrode



References:

[1]

Kaltenbrunner M, Sekitani T, Reeder J, et al. An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics. Nature, 2013, 499(7459): 458

[2]

Drack M, Graz I, Sekitani T, et al. An imperceptible plastic electronic wrap. Adv Mater, 2014, 27(1): 34

[3]

Keum H, Mccormick M, Liu P, et al. Epidermal Electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 838

[4]

Yamada T, Hayamizu Y, Yamamoto Y, et al. A stretchable carbon nanotube strain sensor for human-motion detection. Nat Nanotechnol, 2011, 6(5): 296

[5]

Norton J J S, Lee D S, Lee J W, et al. Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain–computer interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2015, 112(13): 3920

[6]

Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J, et al. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(20): 2773

[7]

Neto A H C, Guinea F, Peres N M R, et al. The electronic properties of graphene. Rev Mod Phys, 2009, 81(1): 109

[8]

Geim A K. Graphene: status and prospects. Science, 2009, 324(5934): 1530

[9]

Akinwande D, Brennan C J, Bunch J S, et al. A review on mechanics and mechanical properties of 2D materials—graphene and beyond. Extrem Mech Lett, 2017, 13: 42

[10]

Lee C, Wei X, Kysar J W, et al. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science, 2008, 321(5887): 385

[11]

Geim A K, Novoselov K S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6(3): 183

[12]

Bolotin K I, Sikes K J, Jiang Z, et al. Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene. Solid State Commun, 2008, 146(9/10): 351

[13]

Sprinkle M, Ruan M, Hu Y, et al. Scalable templated growth of graphene nanoribbons on SiC. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5: 727

[14]

Wassei J K, Kaner R B. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor. Mater Today, 2010, 13(3): 52

[15]

Stylianakis M M, Konios D, Petridis K, et al. Solution-processed graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes as ideal ITO alternatives for organic solar cells. Graphene Materials - Advanced Applications, 2017

[16]

Novoselov K S. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science, 2004, 306(5696): 666

[17]

Berger C. Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene. Science, 2006, 312(5777): 1191

[18]

Ohta T. Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene. Science, 2006, 313(5789): 951

[19]

Sutter P W, Flege J I, Sutter E. Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium. Nat Mater, 2008, 7(5): 406

[20]

Eda G, Fanchini G, Chhowalla M. Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nat Nanotechnol, 2008, 3(5): 270

[21]

Li X, Zhang G, Bai X, et al. Highly conducting graphene sheets and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Nat Nanotechnol, 2008, 3(9): 1

[22]

Li X, Cai W, An J, et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science, 2009, 324(5932): 1312

[23]

Muñoz R, Gómez-Aleixandre C. Review of CVD synthesis of graphene. Chem Vap Depos, 2013, 19(10-12): 297

[24]

Fang W, Hsu A L, Song Y, et al. A review of large-area bilayer graphene synthesis by chemical vapor deposition. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(48): 20335

[25]

Lee S M, Kim J H, Ahn J H. Graphene as a flexible electronic material: mechanical limitations by defect formation and efforts to overcome. Mater Today, 2015, 18(6): 336

[26]

Katsnelson M I. Graphene: carbon in two dimensions. Mater Today, 2007, 10(1/2): 20

[27]

Li X, Cai W, An J, et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science, 2009, 324(5932): 1312

[28]

Reina A, Jia X, Ho J, et al. Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett, 2009, 9(1): 30

[29]

Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Dommett G H B, et al. Graphene-based composite materials. Nature, 2006, 442(7100): 282

[30]

Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Piner R D, et al. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon, 2007, 45(7): 1558

[31]

Sun Z, Yan Z, Yao J, et al. Growth of graphene from solid carbon sources. Nature, 2010, 468(7323): 549

[32]

Byun S, Lim H, Shin G, et al. Graphenes converted from polymers. J Phys Chem Lett, 2011, 2(5): 493

[33]

Chen S, Brown L, Levendorf M, et al. Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(2): 1321

[34]

Lee Y, Bae S, Jang H, et al. Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(2): 490

[35]

Kim K S, Zhao Y, Jang H, et al. Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature, 2009, 457(7230): 706

[36]

Li X, Zhu Y, Cai W, et al. Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes. Nano Lett, 2009, 9(12): 4359

[37]

Kang, J, Shin, D, Bae, S, et al. Graphene transfer: key for applications. Nanoscale, 2012, 4(18): 5527

[38]

Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5(8): 574

[39]

Suk J W, Kitt A, Magnuson C W, et al. Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(9): 6916

[40]

Suk J W, Lee W H, Lee J, et al. Enhancement of the electrical properties of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition via controlling the effects of polymer residue. Nano Lett, 2013, 13(4): 1462

[41]

Gao L, Ni G X, Liu Y, et al. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films. Nature, 2013, 505(7482): 190

[42]

Kobayashi T, Bando M, Kimura N, et al. Production of a 100-m-long high-quality graphene transparent conductive film by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition and transfer process. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2): 23112

[43]

Kobayashi, T, Bando M, Kimura N, et al. Production of a 100-m-long high-quality graphene transparent conductive film by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition and transfer process. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2): 1

[44]

Biswas C, Lee Y H. Graphene versus carbon nanotubes in electronic devices. Adv Funct Mater, 2011, 21(20): 3806

[45]

Sharma B K, Ahn J H. Graphene based field effect transistors: efforts made towards flexible electronics. Solid. State. Electron, 2013, 89: 177

[46]

Schwierz F. Graphene transistors. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5(7): 487

[47]

Matyba P, Yamaguchi H, Eda G, et al. Graphene and mobile ions: the key to all plastic, solution processed light emitting devices. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(2): 637

[48]

Park H, Chang S, Zhou X, et al. Flexible graphene electrode-based organic photovoltaics with record-high efficiency. Nano Lett, 2014, 14(9): 5148

[49]

Park S J, Kwon O S, Lee S H, et al. Ultrasensitive flexible graphene based field-effect transistor (FET)-type bioelectronic nose. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(10): 5082

[50]

Sire C, Ardiaca F, Lepilliet S, et al. Flexible gigahertz transistors derived from solution-based single-layer graphene. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(3): 1184

[51]

Lu C, Lin Y, Yeh C, et al. High Mobility flexible graphene field-effect transistors with self-healing gate dielectrics. ACS Nano, 2012, 6(5): 4469

[52]

Yan L, Zhang Y, Zhang X, et al. Single layer graphene electrodes for quantum dot-light emitting diodes. Nanotechnology, 2015, 26(13): 135201

[53]

Yeh C H, Lain Y W, Chiu Y C, et al. Gigahertz flexible graphene transistors for microwave integrated circuits. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(8): 7663

[54]

Lee S, Lee K, Liu C H, et al. Flexible and transparent all-graphene circuits for quaternary digital modulations. Nat Commun, 2012, 3(V): 1018

[55]

Lee J, Ha T J, Li H, et al. 25 GHz embedded-gate graphene transistors with high-k dielectrics on extremely flexible plastic sheets. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(9): 7744

[56]

Kim B J, Jang H, Lee S K, et al. High-performance flexible graphene field effect transistors with ion gel gate dielectrics. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(9): 3464

[57]

Lee S K, Kim B J, Jang H, et al. Stretchable graphene transistors with printed dielectrics and gate electrodes. Nano Lett, 2011, 11(11): 4642

[58]

Kim B J, Lee S K, Kang M S, et al. Coplanar-gate transparent graphene transistors and inverters on plastic. ACS Nano, 2012, 6(10): 8646

[59]

Lee S K, Jang H Y, Jang S, et al. All graphene-based thin film transistors on flexible plastic substrates. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(7): 3472

[60]

Lee S K, Kabir S M H, Sharma B K, et al. Photo-patternable ion gel-gated graphene transistors and inverters on plastic. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25(1): 14002

[61]

Lin Y M, Dimitrakopoulos, C, Jenkins K A, et al. 100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene. Science, 2010, 327(5966): 662

[62]

Liao L, Lin Y C, Bao M, et al. High-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate. Nature, 2010, 467(7313): 305

[63]

Wu Y, Lin Y, Bol A A, et al. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon. Nature, 2011, 472(7341): 74

[64]

Hamberg I, Granqvist C G. Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows. J Appl Phys, 1986, 60(11): R123

[65]

Minami T. Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2005, 20(4): S35

[66]

Granqvist C G. Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: a panoramic review. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2007, 91(17): 1529

[67]

De S, Higgins T M, Lyons P E, et al. Silver nanowire networks as flexible, transparent, conducting films: extremely high DC to optical conductivity ratios. ACS Nano, 2009, 3(7): 1767

[68]

Kou P, Yang L, Chang C, et al. Improved flexible transparent conductive electrodes based on silver nanowire networks by a simple sunlight illumination approach. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 42052

[69]

Cui Z, Gao Y. Hybrid printing of high resolution metal mesh as a transparent conductor for touch panels and OLED displays. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2015, 46(1): 398

[70]

Zhou Y, Azumi R. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive films: progress, challenges, and perspectives. Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2016, 17(1): 493

[71]

Luo M, Liu Y, Huang W, et al. Towards flexible transparent electrodes based on carbon and metallic materials. Micromachines, 2017, 8(1): 12

[72]

Pang S, Hernandez Y, Feng X, et al. Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics. Adv Mater, 2011, 23(25): 2779

[73]

Pickering J A. Touch-sensitive screens: the technologies and their application. Int J Man Mach Stud, 1986, 25: 249

[74]

Ryu J, Kim Y, Won D, et al. Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(1): 950

[75]

Wu J, Agrawal M, Becerril H A, et al. Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(1): 43

[76]

Chang H, Wang G, Yang A, et al. A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode. Adv Funct Mater, 2010, 20(17): 2893

[77]

Han T H, Lee Y, Choi M R, et al. Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode. Nat Photonics, 2012, 6(2): 105

[78]

Lee J, Han T H, Park M H, et al. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 11791

[79]

Gather M C, Reineke S. Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes. J Photonics Energy, 2015, 5(1): 57607

[80]

Kim S Y, Kim J J. Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness. Org Electron, 2010, 11(6): 1010

[81]

Furno M, Meerheim R, Hofmann S, et al. Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices. Phys Rev B, 2012, 85(11): 115205

[82]

Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K. Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett, 2008, 8(1): 323

[83]

Eda G, Lin Y Y, Miller S, et al. Transparent and conducting electrodes for organic electronics from reduced graphene oxide. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 92(23): 233305

[84]

Valentini L, Cardinali M, Bon S B, et al. Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20(5): 995

[85]

Kalita G, Matsushima M, Uchida H, et al. Graphene constructed carbon thin films as transparent electrodes for solar cell applications. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20(43): 9713

[86]

Chapin D M, Fuller C S, Pearson G L. A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power. J Appl Phys, 1954, 25(5): 676

[87]

Green M A, Emery K, Hishikawa Y, et al. Solar cell efficiency tables(version 49). Prog Photovolt Res Appl, 2017, 25(1): 3

[88]

Wang Y, Chen X, Zhong Y, et al. Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95(6): 63302

[89]

Park H, Rowehl J A, Kim K K, et al. Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells. Nanotechnology, 2010, 21(50): 505204

[90]

De Arco L G, Zhang Y, Schlenker C W, et al. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(5): 2865

[91]

Li S S, Tu K H, Lin C C, et al. Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(6): 3169

[92]

Kymakis E, Savva K, Stylianakis M M, et al. Flexible organic photovoltaic cells with in situ nonthermal photoreduction of spin-coated graphene oxide electrodes. Adv Funct Mater, 2013, 23(21): 2742

[93]

Lee S, Yeo J S, Ji Y, et al. Flexible organic solar cells composed of P3HT:PCBM using chemically doped graphene electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2012, 23(34): 344013

[94]

Liu Z, Li J, Yan F. Package-free flexible organic solar cells with graphene top electrodes. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(31): 4296

[95]

Kim H, Bae S H, Han T H, et al. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25(1): 14012

[96]

Kim K, Bae S H, Toh C T, et al. Ultrathin organic solar cells with graphene doped by ferroelectric polarization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6(5): 3299

[97]

Yan C, Wang J, Kang W, et al. Highly stretchable piezoresistive graphene-nanocellulose nanopaper for strain sensors. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(13): 2022

[98]

Tian H, Shu Y, Wang X F, et al. A graphene-based resistive pressure sensor with record-high sensitivity in a wide pressure range. Sci Rep, 2015, 5(1): 8603

[99]

Chun S, Hong A, Choi Y, et al. A tactile sensor using a conductive graphene-sponge composite. Nanoscale, 2016, 8(17): 9185

[100]

Bae S, Lee Y, Sharma B K, et al. Graphene-based transparent strain sensor. Carbon, 2013, 51: 236

[101]

Park Y J, Lee S K, Kim M S, et al. Graphene-based conformal devices. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(8): 7655

[102]

Yang T, Wang W, Zhang H, et al. Tactile sensing system based on arrays of graphene woven microfabrics: electromechanical behavior and electronic skin application. ACS Nano, 2015, 9(11): 10867

[103]

Kang M, Kim J, Jang B, et al. Graphene-based three-dimensional capacitive touch sensor for wearable electronics. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(8): 7950

[104]

Ameri S K, Ho R, Jang H, et al. Graphene electronic tattoo sensors. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(8): 7634

[105]

Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B, et al. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nat Nanotechnol, 2016, 11(6): 566

[106]

Kim J, Kim M, Lee M S, et al. Wearable smart sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses for wireless ocular diagnostics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 14997

[107]

Wang Z L. Self-powered nanotech. Sci Am, 2008, 1: 82

[108]

Wang Z L. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science, 2006, 312(5771): 242

[109]

Wang Z L, Chen J, Lin L. Progress in triboelectric nanogenerators as a new energy technology and self-powered sensors. Energy Environ Sci, 2015, 8(8): 2250

[110]

Grande L, Chundi V T, Wei D, et al. Graphene for energy harvesting/storage devices and printed electronics. Particuology, 2012, 10(1): 1

[111]

Zheng Q, Shi B, Li Z, et al. Recent Progress on piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesters in biomedical systems. Adv Sci, 2017, 4(7): 1700029

[112]

Nam G H, Baek S H, Cho C H, et al. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate. Nanoscale, 2014, 6(20): 11653

[113]

Song R, Jin H, Li X, et al. A rectification-free piezo-supercapacitor with a polyvinylidene fluoride separator and functionalized carbon cloth electrodes. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3(29): 14963

[114]

Kumar B, Lee K Y, Park H K, et al. Controlled growth of semiconducting nanowire, nanowall, and hybrid nanostructures on graphene for piezoelectric nanogenerators. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(5): 4197

[115]

Bae S H, Kahya O, Sharma B K, et al. Graphene-P (VDF-TrFE) multilayer film for flexible applications. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(4): 3130

[116]

Lee J H, Lee K Y, Kumar B, et al. Highly sensitive stretchable transparent piezoelectric nanogenerators. Energy Environ Sci, 2013, 6(1): 169

[117]

Lee J H, Lee K Y, Gupta M K, et al. Highly stretchable piezoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid nanogenerator. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(5): 765

[118]

He X, Guo H, Yue X, et al. Improving energy conversion efficiency for triboelectric nanogenerator with capacitor structure by maximizing surface charge density. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(5): 1896

[119]

Liu C, Hua B, You S, et al. Self-amplified piezoelectric nanogenerator with enhanced output performance: the synergistic effect of micropatterned polymer film and interweaved silver nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2015, 106: 163901

[120]

Bae J, Park Y J, Lee M, et al. Single-fiber-based hybridization of energy converters and storage units using graphene as electrodes. Adv. Mater, 2011, 23(30): 3446

[121]

Kwon J, Seung W, Sharma B K, et al. A high performance PZT ribbon-based nanogenerator using graphene transparent electrodes. Energy Environ Sci, 2012, 5(10): 8970

[122]

Khan U, Kim T H, Ryu H, et al. Graphene tribotronics for electronic skin and touch screen applications. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(1): 1603544

[123]

Chu H, Jang H, Lee Y, et al. Conformal, graphene-based triboelectric nanogenerator for self-powered wearable electronics. Nano Energy, 2016, 27: 298

[124]

Kim S, Gupta M. Transparent flexible graphene triboelectric nanogenerators. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(23): 3918

[1]

Kaltenbrunner M, Sekitani T, Reeder J, et al. An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics. Nature, 2013, 499(7459): 458

[2]

Drack M, Graz I, Sekitani T, et al. An imperceptible plastic electronic wrap. Adv Mater, 2014, 27(1): 34

[3]

Keum H, Mccormick M, Liu P, et al. Epidermal Electronics. Science, 2011, 333: 838

[4]

Yamada T, Hayamizu Y, Yamamoto Y, et al. A stretchable carbon nanotube strain sensor for human-motion detection. Nat Nanotechnol, 2011, 6(5): 296

[5]

Norton J J S, Lee D S, Lee J W, et al. Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain–computer interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 2015, 112(13): 3920

[6]

Yeo W H, Kim Y S, Lee J, et al. Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(20): 2773

[7]

Neto A H C, Guinea F, Peres N M R, et al. The electronic properties of graphene. Rev Mod Phys, 2009, 81(1): 109

[8]

Geim A K. Graphene: status and prospects. Science, 2009, 324(5934): 1530

[9]

Akinwande D, Brennan C J, Bunch J S, et al. A review on mechanics and mechanical properties of 2D materials—graphene and beyond. Extrem Mech Lett, 2017, 13: 42

[10]

Lee C, Wei X, Kysar J W, et al. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science, 2008, 321(5887): 385

[11]

Geim A K, Novoselov K S. The rise of graphene. Nat Mater, 2007, 6(3): 183

[12]

Bolotin K I, Sikes K J, Jiang Z, et al. Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene. Solid State Commun, 2008, 146(9/10): 351

[13]

Sprinkle M, Ruan M, Hu Y, et al. Scalable templated growth of graphene nanoribbons on SiC. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5: 727

[14]

Wassei J K, Kaner R B. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor. Mater Today, 2010, 13(3): 52

[15]

Stylianakis M M, Konios D, Petridis K, et al. Solution-processed graphene-based transparent conductive electrodes as ideal ITO alternatives for organic solar cells. Graphene Materials - Advanced Applications, 2017

[16]

Novoselov K S. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science, 2004, 306(5696): 666

[17]

Berger C. Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene. Science, 2006, 312(5777): 1191

[18]

Ohta T. Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene. Science, 2006, 313(5789): 951

[19]

Sutter P W, Flege J I, Sutter E. Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium. Nat Mater, 2008, 7(5): 406

[20]

Eda G, Fanchini G, Chhowalla M. Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nat Nanotechnol, 2008, 3(5): 270

[21]

Li X, Zhang G, Bai X, et al. Highly conducting graphene sheets and Langmuir-Blodgett films. Nat Nanotechnol, 2008, 3(9): 1

[22]

Li X, Cai W, An J, et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science, 2009, 324(5932): 1312

[23]

Muñoz R, Gómez-Aleixandre C. Review of CVD synthesis of graphene. Chem Vap Depos, 2013, 19(10-12): 297

[24]

Fang W, Hsu A L, Song Y, et al. A review of large-area bilayer graphene synthesis by chemical vapor deposition. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(48): 20335

[25]

Lee S M, Kim J H, Ahn J H. Graphene as a flexible electronic material: mechanical limitations by defect formation and efforts to overcome. Mater Today, 2015, 18(6): 336

[26]

Katsnelson M I. Graphene: carbon in two dimensions. Mater Today, 2007, 10(1/2): 20

[27]

Li X, Cai W, An J, et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science, 2009, 324(5932): 1312

[28]

Reina A, Jia X, Ho J, et al. Large area, few-layer graphene films on arbitrary substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett, 2009, 9(1): 30

[29]

Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Dommett G H B, et al. Graphene-based composite materials. Nature, 2006, 442(7100): 282

[30]

Stankovich S, Dikin D A, Piner R D, et al. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon, 2007, 45(7): 1558

[31]

Sun Z, Yan Z, Yao J, et al. Growth of graphene from solid carbon sources. Nature, 2010, 468(7323): 549

[32]

Byun S, Lim H, Shin G, et al. Graphenes converted from polymers. J Phys Chem Lett, 2011, 2(5): 493

[33]

Chen S, Brown L, Levendorf M, et al. Oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu and Cu/Ni alloy. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(2): 1321

[34]

Lee Y, Bae S, Jang H, et al. Wafer-scale synthesis and transfer of graphene films. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(2): 490

[35]

Kim K S, Zhao Y, Jang H, et al. Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature, 2009, 457(7230): 706

[36]

Li X, Zhu Y, Cai W, et al. Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes. Nano Lett, 2009, 9(12): 4359

[37]

Kang, J, Shin, D, Bae, S, et al. Graphene transfer: key for applications. Nanoscale, 2012, 4(18): 5527

[38]

Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5(8): 574

[39]

Suk J W, Kitt A, Magnuson C W, et al. Transfer of CVD-grown monolayer graphene onto arbitrary substrates. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(9): 6916

[40]

Suk J W, Lee W H, Lee J, et al. Enhancement of the electrical properties of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition via controlling the effects of polymer residue. Nano Lett, 2013, 13(4): 1462

[41]

Gao L, Ni G X, Liu Y, et al. Face-to-face transfer of wafer-scale graphene films. Nature, 2013, 505(7482): 190

[42]

Kobayashi T, Bando M, Kimura N, et al. Production of a 100-m-long high-quality graphene transparent conductive film by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition and transfer process. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2): 23112

[43]

Kobayashi, T, Bando M, Kimura N, et al. Production of a 100-m-long high-quality graphene transparent conductive film by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition and transfer process. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2): 1

[44]

Biswas C, Lee Y H. Graphene versus carbon nanotubes in electronic devices. Adv Funct Mater, 2011, 21(20): 3806

[45]

Sharma B K, Ahn J H. Graphene based field effect transistors: efforts made towards flexible electronics. Solid. State. Electron, 2013, 89: 177

[46]

Schwierz F. Graphene transistors. Nat Nanotechnol, 2010, 5(7): 487

[47]

Matyba P, Yamaguchi H, Eda G, et al. Graphene and mobile ions: the key to all plastic, solution processed light emitting devices. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(2): 637

[48]

Park H, Chang S, Zhou X, et al. Flexible graphene electrode-based organic photovoltaics with record-high efficiency. Nano Lett, 2014, 14(9): 5148

[49]

Park S J, Kwon O S, Lee S H, et al. Ultrasensitive flexible graphene based field-effect transistor (FET)-type bioelectronic nose. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(10): 5082

[50]

Sire C, Ardiaca F, Lepilliet S, et al. Flexible gigahertz transistors derived from solution-based single-layer graphene. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(3): 1184

[51]

Lu C, Lin Y, Yeh C, et al. High Mobility flexible graphene field-effect transistors with self-healing gate dielectrics. ACS Nano, 2012, 6(5): 4469

[52]

Yan L, Zhang Y, Zhang X, et al. Single layer graphene electrodes for quantum dot-light emitting diodes. Nanotechnology, 2015, 26(13): 135201

[53]

Yeh C H, Lain Y W, Chiu Y C, et al. Gigahertz flexible graphene transistors for microwave integrated circuits. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(8): 7663

[54]

Lee S, Lee K, Liu C H, et al. Flexible and transparent all-graphene circuits for quaternary digital modulations. Nat Commun, 2012, 3(V): 1018

[55]

Lee J, Ha T J, Li H, et al. 25 GHz embedded-gate graphene transistors with high-k dielectrics on extremely flexible plastic sheets. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(9): 7744

[56]

Kim B J, Jang H, Lee S K, et al. High-performance flexible graphene field effect transistors with ion gel gate dielectrics. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(9): 3464

[57]

Lee S K, Kim B J, Jang H, et al. Stretchable graphene transistors with printed dielectrics and gate electrodes. Nano Lett, 2011, 11(11): 4642

[58]

Kim B J, Lee S K, Kang M S, et al. Coplanar-gate transparent graphene transistors and inverters on plastic. ACS Nano, 2012, 6(10): 8646

[59]

Lee S K, Jang H Y, Jang S, et al. All graphene-based thin film transistors on flexible plastic substrates. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(7): 3472

[60]

Lee S K, Kabir S M H, Sharma B K, et al. Photo-patternable ion gel-gated graphene transistors and inverters on plastic. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25(1): 14002

[61]

Lin Y M, Dimitrakopoulos, C, Jenkins K A, et al. 100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene. Science, 2010, 327(5966): 662

[62]

Liao L, Lin Y C, Bao M, et al. High-speed graphene transistors with a self-aligned nanowire gate. Nature, 2010, 467(7313): 305

[63]

Wu Y, Lin Y, Bol A A, et al. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon. Nature, 2011, 472(7341): 74

[64]

Hamberg I, Granqvist C G. Evaporated Sn-doped In2O3 films: basic optical properties and applications to energy-efficient windows. J Appl Phys, 1986, 60(11): R123

[65]

Minami T. Transparent conducting oxide semiconductors for transparent electrodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2005, 20(4): S35

[66]

Granqvist C G. Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: a panoramic review. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2007, 91(17): 1529

[67]

De S, Higgins T M, Lyons P E, et al. Silver nanowire networks as flexible, transparent, conducting films: extremely high DC to optical conductivity ratios. ACS Nano, 2009, 3(7): 1767

[68]

Kou P, Yang L, Chang C, et al. Improved flexible transparent conductive electrodes based on silver nanowire networks by a simple sunlight illumination approach. Sci Rep, 2017, 7: 42052

[69]

Cui Z, Gao Y. Hybrid printing of high resolution metal mesh as a transparent conductor for touch panels and OLED displays. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2015, 46(1): 398

[70]

Zhou Y, Azumi R. Carbon nanotube based transparent conductive films: progress, challenges, and perspectives. Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2016, 17(1): 493

[71]

Luo M, Liu Y, Huang W, et al. Towards flexible transparent electrodes based on carbon and metallic materials. Micromachines, 2017, 8(1): 12

[72]

Pang S, Hernandez Y, Feng X, et al. Graphene as transparent electrode material for organic electronics. Adv Mater, 2011, 23(25): 2779

[73]

Pickering J A. Touch-sensitive screens: the technologies and their application. Int J Man Mach Stud, 1986, 25: 249

[74]

Ryu J, Kim Y, Won D, et al. Fast synthesis of high-performance graphene films by hydrogen-free rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(1): 950

[75]

Wu J, Agrawal M, Becerril H A, et al. Organic light-emitting diodes on solution-processed graphene transparent electrodes. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(1): 43

[76]

Chang H, Wang G, Yang A, et al. A transparent, flexible, low-temperature, and solution-processible graphene composite electrode. Adv Funct Mater, 2010, 20(17): 2893

[77]

Han T H, Lee Y, Choi M R, et al. Extremely efficient flexible organic light-emitting diodes with modified graphene anode. Nat Photonics, 2012, 6(2): 105

[78]

Lee J, Han T H, Park M H, et al. Synergetic electrode architecture for efficient graphene-based flexible organic light-emitting diodes. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 11791

[79]

Gather M C, Reineke S. Recent advances in light outcoupling from white organic light-emitting diodes. J Photonics Energy, 2015, 5(1): 57607

[80]

Kim S Y, Kim J J. Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness. Org Electron, 2010, 11(6): 1010

[81]

Furno M, Meerheim R, Hofmann S, et al. Efficiency and rate of spontaneous emission in organic electroluminescent devices. Phys Rev B, 2012, 85(11): 115205

[82]

Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K. Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett, 2008, 8(1): 323

[83]

Eda G, Lin Y Y, Miller S, et al. Transparent and conducting electrodes for organic electronics from reduced graphene oxide. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 92(23): 233305

[84]

Valentini L, Cardinali M, Bon S B, et al. Use of butylamine modified graphene sheets in polymer solar cells. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20(5): 995

[85]

Kalita G, Matsushima M, Uchida H, et al. Graphene constructed carbon thin films as transparent electrodes for solar cell applications. J Mater Chem, 2010, 20(43): 9713

[86]

Chapin D M, Fuller C S, Pearson G L. A new silicon p-n junction photocell for converting solar radiation into electrical power. J Appl Phys, 1954, 25(5): 676

[87]

Green M A, Emery K, Hishikawa Y, et al. Solar cell efficiency tables(version 49). Prog Photovolt Res Appl, 2017, 25(1): 3

[88]

Wang Y, Chen X, Zhong Y, et al. Large area, continuous, few-layered graphene as anodes in organic photovoltaic devices. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95(6): 63302

[89]

Park H, Rowehl J A, Kim K K, et al. Doped graphene electrodes for organic solar cells. Nanotechnology, 2010, 21(50): 505204

[90]

De Arco L G, Zhang Y, Schlenker C W, et al. Continuous, highly flexible, and transparent graphene films by chemical vapor deposition for organic photovoltaics. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(5): 2865

[91]

Li S S, Tu K H, Lin C C, et al. Solution-processable graphene oxide as an efficient hole transport layer in polymer solar cells. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(6): 3169

[92]

Kymakis E, Savva K, Stylianakis M M, et al. Flexible organic photovoltaic cells with in situ nonthermal photoreduction of spin-coated graphene oxide electrodes. Adv Funct Mater, 2013, 23(21): 2742

[93]

Lee S, Yeo J S, Ji Y, et al. Flexible organic solar cells composed of P3HT:PCBM using chemically doped graphene electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2012, 23(34): 344013

[94]

Liu Z, Li J, Yan F. Package-free flexible organic solar cells with graphene top electrodes. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(31): 4296

[95]

Kim H, Bae S H, Han T H, et al. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes. Nanotechnology, 2014, 25(1): 14012

[96]

Kim K, Bae S H, Toh C T, et al. Ultrathin organic solar cells with graphene doped by ferroelectric polarization. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2014, 6(5): 3299

[97]

Yan C, Wang J, Kang W, et al. Highly stretchable piezoresistive graphene-nanocellulose nanopaper for strain sensors. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(13): 2022

[98]

Tian H, Shu Y, Wang X F, et al. A graphene-based resistive pressure sensor with record-high sensitivity in a wide pressure range. Sci Rep, 2015, 5(1): 8603

[99]

Chun S, Hong A, Choi Y, et al. A tactile sensor using a conductive graphene-sponge composite. Nanoscale, 2016, 8(17): 9185

[100]

Bae S, Lee Y, Sharma B K, et al. Graphene-based transparent strain sensor. Carbon, 2013, 51: 236

[101]

Park Y J, Lee S K, Kim M S, et al. Graphene-based conformal devices. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(8): 7655

[102]

Yang T, Wang W, Zhang H, et al. Tactile sensing system based on arrays of graphene woven microfabrics: electromechanical behavior and electronic skin application. ACS Nano, 2015, 9(11): 10867

[103]

Kang M, Kim J, Jang B, et al. Graphene-based three-dimensional capacitive touch sensor for wearable electronics. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(8): 7950

[104]

Ameri S K, Ho R, Jang H, et al. Graphene electronic tattoo sensors. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(8): 7634

[105]

Lee H, Choi T K, Lee Y B, et al. A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy. Nat Nanotechnol, 2016, 11(6): 566

[106]

Kim J, Kim M, Lee M S, et al. Wearable smart sensor systems integrated on soft contact lenses for wireless ocular diagnostics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 14997

[107]

Wang Z L. Self-powered nanotech. Sci Am, 2008, 1: 82

[108]

Wang Z L. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science, 2006, 312(5771): 242

[109]

Wang Z L, Chen J, Lin L. Progress in triboelectric nanogenerators as a new energy technology and self-powered sensors. Energy Environ Sci, 2015, 8(8): 2250

[110]

Grande L, Chundi V T, Wei D, et al. Graphene for energy harvesting/storage devices and printed electronics. Particuology, 2012, 10(1): 1

[111]

Zheng Q, Shi B, Li Z, et al. Recent Progress on piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesters in biomedical systems. Adv Sci, 2017, 4(7): 1700029

[112]

Nam G H, Baek S H, Cho C H, et al. A flexible and transparent graphene/ZnO nanorod hybrid structure fabricated by exfoliating a graphite substrate. Nanoscale, 2014, 6(20): 11653

[113]

Song R, Jin H, Li X, et al. A rectification-free piezo-supercapacitor with a polyvinylidene fluoride separator and functionalized carbon cloth electrodes. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3(29): 14963

[114]

Kumar B, Lee K Y, Park H K, et al. Controlled growth of semiconducting nanowire, nanowall, and hybrid nanostructures on graphene for piezoelectric nanogenerators. ACS Nano, 2011, 5(5): 4197

[115]

Bae S H, Kahya O, Sharma B K, et al. Graphene-P (VDF-TrFE) multilayer film for flexible applications. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(4): 3130

[116]

Lee J H, Lee K Y, Kumar B, et al. Highly sensitive stretchable transparent piezoelectric nanogenerators. Energy Environ Sci, 2013, 6(1): 169

[117]

Lee J H, Lee K Y, Gupta M K, et al. Highly stretchable piezoelectric-pyroelectric hybrid nanogenerator. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(5): 765

[118]

He X, Guo H, Yue X, et al. Improving energy conversion efficiency for triboelectric nanogenerator with capacitor structure by maximizing surface charge density. Nanoscale, 2015, 7(5): 1896

[119]

Liu C, Hua B, You S, et al. Self-amplified piezoelectric nanogenerator with enhanced output performance: the synergistic effect of micropatterned polymer film and interweaved silver nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2015, 106: 163901

[120]

Bae J, Park Y J, Lee M, et al. Single-fiber-based hybridization of energy converters and storage units using graphene as electrodes. Adv. Mater, 2011, 23(30): 3446

[121]

Kwon J, Seung W, Sharma B K, et al. A high performance PZT ribbon-based nanogenerator using graphene transparent electrodes. Energy Environ Sci, 2012, 5(10): 8970

[122]

Khan U, Kim T H, Ryu H, et al. Graphene tribotronics for electronic skin and touch screen applications. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(1): 1603544

[123]

Chu H, Jang H, Lee Y, et al. Conformal, graphene-based triboelectric nanogenerator for self-powered wearable electronics. Nano Energy, 2016, 27: 298

[124]

Kim S, Gupta M. Transparent flexible graphene triboelectric nanogenerators. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(23): 3918

[1]

Yongli He, Xiangyu Wang, Ya Gao, Yahui Hou, Qing Wan. Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 011005. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011005

[2]

Xian Huang. Materials and applications of bioresorbable electronics. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 011003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011003

[3]

Sujie Chen, Siying Li, Sai Peng, Yukun Huang, Jiaqing Zhao, Wei Tang, Xiaojun Guo. Silver nanowire/polymer composite soft conductive film fabricated by large-area compatible coating for flexible pressure sensor array. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 013001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/013001

[4]

Hong Zhu, Yang Shen, Yanqing Li, Jianxin Tang. Recent advances in flexible and wearable organic optoelectronic devices. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 011011. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011011

[5]

Luqi Tao, Danyang Wang, Song Jiang, Ying Liu, Qianyi Xie, He Tian, Ningqin Deng, Xuefeng Wang, Yi Yang, Tianling Ren. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(4): 041001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/4/041001

[6]

Wei Yuan, Xinzhou Wu, Weibing Gu, Jian Lin, Zheng Cui. Printed stretchable circuit on soft elastic substrate for wearable application. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 015002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/015002

[7]

Tao Cheng, Youwei Wu, Xiaoqin Shen, Wenyong Lai, Wei Huang. Inkjet printed large-area flexible circuits: a simple methodology for optimizing the printing quality. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 015001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/015001

[8]

Yanlong Yin, Jiang Li, Yang Xu, Hon Ki Tsang, Daoxin Dai. Silicon-graphene photonic devices. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(6): 061009. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/061009

[9]

K. Fobelets, C. Panteli, O. Sydoruk, Chuanbo Li. Ammonia sensing using arrays of silicon nanowires and graphene. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(6): 063001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/063001

[10]

Li Wuqun, Cao Juncheng. Anisotropic polarization due to electron–phonon interactions in graphene. J. Semicond., 2009, 30(11): 112002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/30/11/112002

[11]

Yang Zhang, Wei Dou, Wei Luo, Weier Lu, Jing Xie, Chaobo Li, Yang Xia. Large area graphene produced via the assistance of surface modification. J. Semicond., 2013, 34(7): 073006. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/34/7/073006

[12]

Xiaowei Jiang. Broadband absorption of graphene from magnetic dipole resonances in hybrid nanostructure. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(6): 062006. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/6/062006

[13]

N. Nouri, G. Rashedi. Band structure of monolayer of graphene, silicene and silicon-carbide including a lattice of empty or filled holes. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(8): 083001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/8/083001

[14]

Pulkit Sharma, Pratap Singh, Kamlesh Patel. Attenuation characteristics of monolayer graphene by Pi-and T-networks modeling of multilayer microstrip line. J. Semicond., 2017, 38(9): 093003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/9/093003

[15]

Leifeng Chen, Hong He. Answer to comments on "Fabrication and photovoltaic conversion enhancement of graphene/n-Si Schottky barrier solar cells by electrophoretic deposition". J. Semicond., 2017, 38(4): 044007. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/4/044007

[16]

Xudong Qin, Yonghai Chen, Yu Liu, Laipan Zhu, Yuan Li, Qing Wu, Wei Huang. New method for thickness determination and microscopic imaging of graphene-like two-dimensional materials. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(1): 013002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/1/013002

[17]

Lara Valentic, Nima E. Gorji. Comment on Chen et al. "Fabrication and photovoltaic conversion enhancement of graphene/n-Si Schottky barrier solar cells by electrophoretic deposition", Electrochimica Acta, 2014. J. Semicond., 2015, 36(9): 094012. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/9/094012

[18]

Wei Feng. Hydrodynamic simulations of terahertz oscillation in double-layer graphene. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(12): 122005. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/12/122005

[19]

Wenchao Min, Hao Sun, Qilian Zhang, Zhiying Chen, Yanhui Zhang, Guanghui Yu, Xiaowei Sun. A comparative study of Ge/Au/Ni/Au-based ohmic contact on graphene. J. Semicond., 2014, 35(5): 056001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/5/056001

[20]

Yubing Wang, Weihong Yin, Qin Han, Xiaohong Yang, Han Ye, Dongdong Yin. A method to transfer an individual graphene flake to a target position with a precision of sub-micrometer. J. Semicond., 2017, 38(4): 046001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/4/046001

Search

Advanced Search >>

GET CITATION

T Das, Bhupendra K. Sharma, Ajit K. Katiyar, J Ahn, Graphene-based flexible and wearable electronics[J]. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 011007. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011007.

Export: BibTex EndNote

Article Metrics

Article views: 2176 Times PDF downloads: 102 Times Cited by: 0 Times

History

Manuscript received: 07 August 2017 Manuscript revised: 27 September 2017 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 27 December 2017 Published: 01 January 2018

Email This Article

User name:
Email:*请输入正确邮箱
Code:*验证码错误