J. Semicond. > Volume 39 > Issue 7 > Article Number: 072002

Hot electron transport in wurtzite-GaN: effects of temperature and doping concentration

Aritra Acharyya ,

+ Author Affilications + Find other works by these authors

PDF

Abstract: The hot electron transport in wurtzite phase gallium nitride (Wz-GaN) has been studied in this paper. An analytical expression of electron drift velocity under the condition of impact ionization has been developed by considering all major scattering mechanisms such as deformation potential acoustic phonon scattering, piezoelectric acoustic phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering, electron-electron scattering and ionizing scattering. Numerical calculations show that electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN saturates at 1.44 × 105 m/s at room temperature for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3. The effects of temperature and doping concentration on the hot electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN have also been studied. Results show that the saturation electron drift velocity varies from 1.91 × 105–0.77 × 105 m/s for the change in temperature within the range of 10–1000 K, for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3; whereas the same varies from 1.44 × 105–0.91 × 105 m/s at 300 K for the variation in the electron concentration within the range of 1022–1025 m−3. The numerically calculated results have been compared with the Monte Carlo simulated results and experimental data reported earlier, and those are found to be in good agreement.

Key words: electron drift velocityhot electron transportGaNscattering limited velocity

Abstract: The hot electron transport in wurtzite phase gallium nitride (Wz-GaN) has been studied in this paper. An analytical expression of electron drift velocity under the condition of impact ionization has been developed by considering all major scattering mechanisms such as deformation potential acoustic phonon scattering, piezoelectric acoustic phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering, electron-electron scattering and ionizing scattering. Numerical calculations show that electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN saturates at 1.44 × 105 m/s at room temperature for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3. The effects of temperature and doping concentration on the hot electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN have also been studied. Results show that the saturation electron drift velocity varies from 1.91 × 105–0.77 × 105 m/s for the change in temperature within the range of 10–1000 K, for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3; whereas the same varies from 1.44 × 105–0.91 × 105 m/s at 300 K for the variation in the electron concentration within the range of 1022–1025 m−3. The numerically calculated results have been compared with the Monte Carlo simulated results and experimental data reported earlier, and those are found to be in good agreement.

Key words: electron drift velocityhot electron transportGaNscattering limited velocity



References:

[1]

Kolnik J, Oguzman I H, Brennan K F, et al. Electronic transport studies of bulk zincblende and wurtzite phases of GaN based on an ensemble Monte Carlo calculation including a full zone band structure. J Appl Phys, 1995, 78(2): 1033

[2]

Bhapkar U V, Shur M S. Monte Carlo calculation of velocity-field characteristics of wurtzite GaN. J Appl Phys, 1997, 82 (4): 1649

[3]

Binesh A R, Arabshahi H, Ebrahimi G R, et al. Temperature dependence of high field electron transport properties in wurtzite phase GaN for device modelling. Int J Mod Phys B, 2008, 22(22): 3915

[4]

Khan M A, Chen Q, Sure M S, et al. GaN based heterostructure for high power devices. Solid-State Electron, 1999, 41: 1555

[5]

Wraback M, Shen H, Carrano J C, et al. Time-resolved electroabsorption measurement of the electron velocity-field characteristic in GaN. Appl Phys Lett, 2000, 76: 1155

[6]

Barker J M, Akis R, Ferry D K, et al. High-field transport studies of GaN. Physica B, 2002, 314: 39

[7]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Prospects of IMPATT devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors as potential terahertz sources. Appl Nanosci, 2014, 4: 1

[8]

Ghosh M, Mondal M, Acharyya A. The effect of electron versus hole photocurrent on opto-electric properties of p+-p-n-n+ Wz-GaN reach-through avalanche photodiodes. Adv Optoelectron, 2013, 2013: 840931

[9]

Nakamura S, Mukai T, Senoh M. Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1994, 64: 1687

[10]

Pengelly R S, Wood S M, Milligan J W, et al. A review of GaN on SiC high electron-mobility power transistors and MMICs. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 2012, 60(6): 1764

[11]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Potentiality of IMPATT devices as terahertz source: an avalanche response time based approach to determine the upper cut-off frequency limits. IETE J Res, 2013, 59(2): 118

[12]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Prospects of IMPATT devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors as potential terahertz sources. Appl Nanosci, 2014, 4: 1

[13]

Bandyopadhyay A M, Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Multiple-band large-signal characterization of millimeter-wave double avalanche region transit time diode. J Comput Electron, 2014, 13: 769

[14]

Acharyya A, Banerjee S, Banerjee J P. Effect of junction temperature on the large-signal properties of a 94 GHz silicon based double-drift region impact avalanche transit time device. J Semicond, 2013, 34(2): 024001

[15]

Acharyya A, Goswami J, Banerjee, S, et al. Quantum corrected drift-diffusion model for terahertz IMPATTs based on different semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2015, 14: 309

[16]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Design and simulation of silicon carbide poly-type double-drift region avalanche photodiodes for UV sensing. J Optoelectron Adv Mater, 2012, 14(7/8): 630

[17]

Ghosh M, Mondal M, Acharyya A. The effect of electron versus hole photocurrent on opto-electric properties of p+–pnn+ Wz-GaN reach-through avalanche photodiodes. Adv Optoelectron, 2013, 2013: 1

[18]

Acharyya A, Ghosh S. Dark current reduction in nano-avalanche photodiodes by incorporating multiple quantum barriers. Int J Electron, 2017, 104(12): 1957

[19]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. A generalized analytical model based on multistage scattering phenomena for estimating the impact ionization rate of charge carriers in semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2014, 13: 917

[20]

Acharyya A. Diminution of impact ionization rate of charge carriers in semiconductors due to acoustic phonon scattering. Appl Phys A, 2017, 123: 629

[21]

Mall J L. Physics of semiconductors. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964: 208

[22]

Electronic Archive: New Semiconductor Materials, Characteristics and Properties. http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/GaN/index.html. (2017). Accessed 3 October 2017

[23]

Bougrov V, Levinshtein M E, Rumyantsev S L, et al. Properties of advanced semiconductor materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2001

[24]

Suzuki M, Uenoyama T, Yanase A. First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN. Phys Rev B, 1995, 52: 8132

[25]

Chin V W L, Tansley T L, Osotchan T. Electron mobilities in gallium, indium, and aluminum nitrides. J Appl Phys, 1994, 75(11): 7365

[26]

Acharyya A, Chatterjee S, Das A, et al. Additional confirmation of a generalized analytical model based on multistage scattering phenomena to evaluate the ionization rates of charge carriers in semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2016, 15: 34

[1]

Kolnik J, Oguzman I H, Brennan K F, et al. Electronic transport studies of bulk zincblende and wurtzite phases of GaN based on an ensemble Monte Carlo calculation including a full zone band structure. J Appl Phys, 1995, 78(2): 1033

[2]

Bhapkar U V, Shur M S. Monte Carlo calculation of velocity-field characteristics of wurtzite GaN. J Appl Phys, 1997, 82 (4): 1649

[3]

Binesh A R, Arabshahi H, Ebrahimi G R, et al. Temperature dependence of high field electron transport properties in wurtzite phase GaN for device modelling. Int J Mod Phys B, 2008, 22(22): 3915

[4]

Khan M A, Chen Q, Sure M S, et al. GaN based heterostructure for high power devices. Solid-State Electron, 1999, 41: 1555

[5]

Wraback M, Shen H, Carrano J C, et al. Time-resolved electroabsorption measurement of the electron velocity-field characteristic in GaN. Appl Phys Lett, 2000, 76: 1155

[6]

Barker J M, Akis R, Ferry D K, et al. High-field transport studies of GaN. Physica B, 2002, 314: 39

[7]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Prospects of IMPATT devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors as potential terahertz sources. Appl Nanosci, 2014, 4: 1

[8]

Ghosh M, Mondal M, Acharyya A. The effect of electron versus hole photocurrent on opto-electric properties of p+-p-n-n+ Wz-GaN reach-through avalanche photodiodes. Adv Optoelectron, 2013, 2013: 840931

[9]

Nakamura S, Mukai T, Senoh M. Candela-class high-brightness InGaN/AlGaN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1994, 64: 1687

[10]

Pengelly R S, Wood S M, Milligan J W, et al. A review of GaN on SiC high electron-mobility power transistors and MMICs. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 2012, 60(6): 1764

[11]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Potentiality of IMPATT devices as terahertz source: an avalanche response time based approach to determine the upper cut-off frequency limits. IETE J Res, 2013, 59(2): 118

[12]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Prospects of IMPATT devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors as potential terahertz sources. Appl Nanosci, 2014, 4: 1

[13]

Bandyopadhyay A M, Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Multiple-band large-signal characterization of millimeter-wave double avalanche region transit time diode. J Comput Electron, 2014, 13: 769

[14]

Acharyya A, Banerjee S, Banerjee J P. Effect of junction temperature on the large-signal properties of a 94 GHz silicon based double-drift region impact avalanche transit time device. J Semicond, 2013, 34(2): 024001

[15]

Acharyya A, Goswami J, Banerjee, S, et al. Quantum corrected drift-diffusion model for terahertz IMPATTs based on different semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2015, 14: 309

[16]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. Design and simulation of silicon carbide poly-type double-drift region avalanche photodiodes for UV sensing. J Optoelectron Adv Mater, 2012, 14(7/8): 630

[17]

Ghosh M, Mondal M, Acharyya A. The effect of electron versus hole photocurrent on opto-electric properties of p+–pnn+ Wz-GaN reach-through avalanche photodiodes. Adv Optoelectron, 2013, 2013: 1

[18]

Acharyya A, Ghosh S. Dark current reduction in nano-avalanche photodiodes by incorporating multiple quantum barriers. Int J Electron, 2017, 104(12): 1957

[19]

Acharyya A, Banerjee J P. A generalized analytical model based on multistage scattering phenomena for estimating the impact ionization rate of charge carriers in semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2014, 13: 917

[20]

Acharyya A. Diminution of impact ionization rate of charge carriers in semiconductors due to acoustic phonon scattering. Appl Phys A, 2017, 123: 629

[21]

Mall J L. Physics of semiconductors. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964: 208

[22]

Electronic Archive: New Semiconductor Materials, Characteristics and Properties. http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/SVA/NSM/Semicond/GaN/index.html. (2017). Accessed 3 October 2017

[23]

Bougrov V, Levinshtein M E, Rumyantsev S L, et al. Properties of advanced semiconductor materials GaN, AlN, InN, BN, SiC, SiGe. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2001

[24]

Suzuki M, Uenoyama T, Yanase A. First-principles calculations of effective-mass parameters of AlN and GaN. Phys Rev B, 1995, 52: 8132

[25]

Chin V W L, Tansley T L, Osotchan T. Electron mobilities in gallium, indium, and aluminum nitrides. J Appl Phys, 1994, 75(11): 7365

[26]

Acharyya A, Chatterjee S, Das A, et al. Additional confirmation of a generalized analytical model based on multistage scattering phenomena to evaluate the ionization rates of charge carriers in semiconductors. J Comput Electron, 2016, 15: 34

[1]

Li Ti, Pan Huapu, Xu Ke, Hu Xiaodong. Optimization of the Electron Blocking Layer in GaN Laser Diodes. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(8): 1458.

[2]

Shao Xianjie, Lu Hai, Zhang Rong, Zheng Youdou, Li Zhonghui. Performance and Design of GaN-Based Transferred-Electron Devices. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(12): 2389.

[3]

Gao Zhiyuan, Hao Yue, Zhang Jincheng, Zhang Jinfeng, Chen Haifeng, Ni Jinyu. Observation of Dislocation Etch Pits in GaN Epilayers by Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(4): 473.

[4]

Ma Zhifang, Wang Yutian, Jiang Desheng, Zhao Degang, Zhang Shuming, Zhu Jianjun, Liu Zongshun, Sun Baojuan, Duan Ruifei, Yang Hui, Liang Junwu. Defect Cluster-Induced X-Ray Diffuse Scattering in GaN Films Grown by MOCVD. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(7): 1242.

[5]

Bi Yang, Wang Xiaoliang, Xiao Hongling, Wang Cuimei, Yang Cuibai, Peng Enchao, Lin Defeng, Feng Chun, Jiang Lijuan. Simulation of electrical properties of InxAl1-xN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure. J. Semicond., 2011, 32(8): 083003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/32/8/083003

[6]

R. K. Parida, A. K. Panda. GaN based transfer electron and avalanche transit time devices. J. Semicond., 2012, 33(5): 054001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/33/5/054001

[7]

Zhang Zhenxing, Xie Erqing, Pan Xiaojun, Jia Lu, Han Weihua. Space-Charge-Limited Current Properties of Amorphous GaN Thin Films. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(13): 113.

[8]

Wang Maojun, Shen Bo, Wang Yan, Huang Sen, Xu Fujun, Xu Jian, Yang Zhijian, Zhang Guoyi. High Temperature Performance of GaN and AIxGal-xN/GaN Heterostructures. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(S1): 376.

[9]

Chen Jun, Wang Jianfeng, Wang Hui, Zhao Degang, Zhu Jianjun, Zhang Shuming, Yang Hui. Dislocation Reduction in GaN on Sapphire by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(3): 419.

[10]

Gao Zhiyuan, Hao Yue, Li Peixian, Zhang Jincheng. Influence of Threading Dislocations on the Luminescence Efficiency of GaN Heteroepitaxial Layers. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(3): 521.

[11]

Liu Guoguo, Huang Jun, Wei Ke, Liu Xinyu, He Zhijing. Post-Gate Process Annealing Effects of Recessed AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(12): 2326.

[12]

Wang Hui, Guo Xia, Liang Ting, Liu Shiwen, Gao Guo, Shen Guangdi. GaAs/GaN Direct Wafer Bonding Based on Hydrophilic Surface Treatment. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(6): 1042.

[13]

Liu Wenbao, Sun Xian, Wang Xiaolan, Zhang Shuang, Liu Zongshun, Zhao Degang, Yang Hui. Characteristics of Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors Based on GaN. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(S1): 588.

[14]

Li Hui, He Guorong, Qu Hongwei, Shi Yan, Chong Ming, Cao Yulian, Chen Lianghui. Direct Bonding of n-GaAs and p-GaN Wafers. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(11): 1815.

[15]

Li Cuiyun, Zhu Hua, Mo Chunlan, Jiang Fengyi. Microstructure of an InGaN/GaN Multiple Quantum Well LED on Si (111) Substrate. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(11): 1950.

[16]

Zhang Ping, Liu Junlin, Zheng Changda, Jiang Fengyi. Influence of Etching Depth on Characteristics of GaN/Si Blue LEDs. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(3): 563.

[17]

Gao Lihua, Yang Yunke, Chen Haixin, Fu Song. Numerical Simulation of Gas Phase and Surface Reaction for Growth of GaN by MOCVD. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(S1): 245.

[18]

Kang Xiangning, Bao Kui, Chen Zhizhong, Xu Ke, Zhang Bei, Yu Tongjun, Nie Ruijuan, Zhang Guoyi. Vertical Electrode Structure GaN Based Light Emitting Diodes. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(S1): 482.

[19]

Chen Yu, Wang Liangchen, Yi Xiaoyan, Wang Libin, Liu Zhiqiang, Ma Long, Yan Lihong. Analyses in Reliability of GaN-Based High Power Light Emitting Diodes. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(S1): 500.

[20]

Su Zhiguo, Xu Jintong, Chen Jun, Li Xiangyang, Liu Ji, Zhao Degang. Negative Persistent Photoconductivity in Unintentionally Doped n-Type GaN. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(6): 878.

Search

Advanced Search >>

GET CITATION

A Acharyya, Hot electron transport in wurtzite-GaN: effects of temperature and doping concentration[J]. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(7): 072002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/072002.

Export: BibTex EndNote

Article Metrics

Article views: 304 Times PDF downloads: 23 Times Cited by: 0 Times

History

Manuscript received: 01 November 2017 Manuscript revised: 11 January 2018 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 04 April 2018 Uncorrected proof: 12 April 2018 Published: 01 July 2018

Email This Article

User name:
Email:*请输入正确邮箱
Code:*验证码错误