J. Semicond. > Volume 37 > Issue 5 > Article Number: 053001

SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

Sunil H. Chaki , Mahesh D. Chaudhary and M. P. Deshpande

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Abstract: The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 ℃. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

Key words: SnSthin filmschemical bath depositiondip coatingSILAR

Abstract: The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 ℃. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

Key words: SnSthin filmschemical bath depositiondip coatingSILAR



References:

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[2]

Tripathi A M, Mitra S. Tin sulfide (SnS) nanorods: structural, optical and lithium storage property study[J]. RSC Adv, 2014, 4: 10358.

[3]

Zhang Y C, Du Z N, Li K W. Size-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of SnS2 nanoparticles with high performance in visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methyl orange[J]. Sep Purif Technol, 2011, 81: 101.

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Kul M. Electrodeposited SnS film for photovoltaic applications[J]. Vacuum, 2014, 107: 213.

[5]

Huang C, Lin Y, Liu C. Photovoltaic properties of n-type SnS contact on the unpolished p-type Si surfaces with and without sulfide treatment[J]. Microelectron Eng, 2013, 110: 21.

[6]

Schneikart A, Schimper H J, Klein A. Efficiency limitations of thermally evaporated thin-film SnS solar cells[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2013, 46: 305109.

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Kumar G G, Reddy K, Nahm K S. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of SnS as possible anode material for lithium batteries[J]. J Phys Chem Solids, 2012, 73: 1187.

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Vaughn D D, Hentz O D, Chen S. Formation of SnS nanoflowers for lithium ion batteries[J]. Chem Commun, 2012, 48: 5608.

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Pramanik P, Basu P K, Biswas S. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited tin(ii) sulphide thin films[J]. Thin Solid Films, 1987, 150: 269.

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Johnson J B, Jones H, Latham B S. Optimization of photoconductivity in vacuum-evaporated tin sulfide thin films[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 1999, 14: 501.

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Karami H, Babaei S. Application of tin sulfide-tin dioxide nanocomposite as oxygen gas sensing agent[J]. Int J Electrochem Sci, 2013, 8: 12078.

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Jiang T, Very G, Ozin A. Adsorption and sensing properties of microporous layered tin sulfide materials[J]. J Mater Chem, 1998, 8: 1649.

[13]

Engelken R D, McCloud H E, Lec C. Low temperature chemical precipitation and vapor deposition of SnxS thin films[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 1987, 134: 2696.

[14]

Huang W, Cheng S, Zhou H. Electrical and optical properties of In-doped SnS thin films prepared by thermal evaporation[J]. ECS Trans, 2012, 44: 1295.

[15]

Hennayaka H M M N, Lee H S. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the microstructural and optical properties of electrodeposited SnS thin films[J]. Electron Mater Lett, 2014, 10: 217.

[16]

Banai R E, Lee H, Zlotnikov S. Phase identification of RF-sputtered SnS thin films using rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns[J]. IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Tampa, FL, 2013: 2562.

[17]

Bade B P, Garje S S, Niwate Y S. Tribenzyl tin(IV) chloride thiosemicarbazones: novel single source precursors for growth of SnS thin films[J]. Chem Vapor Depos, 2008, 14: 292.

[18]

Sanchez-Juarez A, Ortiz A. Effects of precursor concentration on the optical and electrical properties of SnXSY thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 2002, 17: 93113.

[19]

Messaoudi M, Aida M S, Attaf N. Deposition of tin(II) sulfide thin films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis: evidence of sulfur exo-diffusion[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Proc, 2014, 17: 38.

[20]

Thangaraju B, Kaliannan P. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of SnS and SnS2 thin films[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2000, 33: 1054.

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Avellaneda D, Krishnan B, Roy T K D. Modification of structure, morphology and physical properties of tin sulfide thin films by pulsed laser irradiation[J]. Appl Phys A, 2013, 110: 667.

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Jaychandran M, Mohan S, Subramanian B. Studies on the brush plated SnS thin films[J]. J Mater Sci Lett, 2001, 20: 381.

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De Kergommeaux A, Faure-Vincent J, Pron A. SnS thin films realized from colloidal nanocrystal inks[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2013, 535: 376.

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De Kergommeaux A, Fiore A, Faure-Vincent J. Highly conductive CuInSe2 nanocrystals with inorganic surface ligands[J]. Mater Chem Phys, 2012, 136: 877.

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Yu L, Zunger A. Identification of potential photovoltaic absorbers based on first-principles spectroscopic screening of materials[J]. Phys Rev Lett, 2012, 108: 068701.

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Devika M, Reddy N K, Patolsky F. Ohmic contacts to SnS films: selection and estimation of thermal stability[J]. J Appl Phys, 2008, 104: 124503.

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Turan E, Kul M, Aybek A S. Structural and optical properties of SnS semiconductor films produced by chemical bath deposition[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2009, 42: 245408.

[28]

Panda S K, Antonakos A, Liarokapis E. Optical properties of nanocrystalline SnS2 thin films[J]. Mater Res Bull, 2007, 42: 576.

[29]

Williamson G K, Hall W H. X-ray line broadening from filed aluminium and wolfram[J]. Acta Metall, 1953, 1: 22.

[30]

Guneri E, Gode F, Ulutas C. Properties of p-type SnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition[J]. Chalcogenide Lett, 2010, 7: 685.

[31]

Nikolic P M, Miljkovik L, Mihajlovic P. Splitting and coupling of lattice modes in the layer compound SnS[J]. J Phys C: Solid State Phys, 1977, 10.

[32]

Chandrasekhar H R, Humphreys R G, Zwick U. Infrared and Raman spectra of the IV-VI compounds SnS and SnSe[J]. Phys Rev B, 1977, 15: 2177.

[33]

Cheng S, Conibeer G. Physical properties of very thin SnS films deposited by thermal evaporation[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2011, 520: 837.

[34]

Jain P, Arun P. Parameters influencing the optical properties of SnS thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2013, 34: 093004.

[35]

Price L S, Parkin I P, Hardy A M E. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin sulfides (SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2) on glass[J]. Chem Mater, 1999, 11: 1792.

[36]

Aksay S, Ozer T, Zor M. Vibrational and X-ray diffraction spectra of SnS film deposited by chemical bath deposition method[J]. Eur Phys J Appl Phys, 2009, 47: 30502.

[37]

Devika M, Reddy N K, Reddy S V. Influence of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the structural and electrical properties of SnS films[J]. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron, 2009, 20: 1129.

[38]

Devika M, Reddy N K, Ramesh K. Thickness effect on the physical properties of evaporated SnS films[J]. J Electochem Soc, 2007, 154.

[39]

Deshpande N G, Sagade A A, Gudage Y G. Growth and characterization of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin film deposited by} successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique[J]. J Alloy Compd, 2007, 436: 421.

[40]

Xu J, Wei G, Shi W. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited SnS thin films[J]. Proc of SPIE Fifth International Conference on Thin Film Physics and Applications, 2004, 5774: 254.

[41]

Ristov M, Sinadinovski G, Grozdanov L. Chemical deposition of tin(II) sulphide thin films[J]. Thin Solid Films, 1989, 173: 53.

[1]

Kuhn A, Holzmann T, Nuss J. A facile wet chemistry approach towards unilamellar tin sulfide nanosheets from Li4xSn1-xS2 solid solutions[J]. J Mater Chem A, 2014, 2: 6100.

[2]

Tripathi A M, Mitra S. Tin sulfide (SnS) nanorods: structural, optical and lithium storage property study[J]. RSC Adv, 2014, 4: 10358.

[3]

Zhang Y C, Du Z N, Li K W. Size-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of SnS2 nanoparticles with high performance in visible light-driven photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methyl orange[J]. Sep Purif Technol, 2011, 81: 101.

[4]

Kul M. Electrodeposited SnS film for photovoltaic applications[J]. Vacuum, 2014, 107: 213.

[5]

Huang C, Lin Y, Liu C. Photovoltaic properties of n-type SnS contact on the unpolished p-type Si surfaces with and without sulfide treatment[J]. Microelectron Eng, 2013, 110: 21.

[6]

Schneikart A, Schimper H J, Klein A. Efficiency limitations of thermally evaporated thin-film SnS solar cells[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2013, 46: 305109.

[7]

Kumar G G, Reddy K, Nahm K S. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of SnS as possible anode material for lithium batteries[J]. J Phys Chem Solids, 2012, 73: 1187.

[8]

Vaughn D D, Hentz O D, Chen S. Formation of SnS nanoflowers for lithium ion batteries[J]. Chem Commun, 2012, 48: 5608.

[9]

Pramanik P, Basu P K, Biswas S. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited tin(ii) sulphide thin films[J]. Thin Solid Films, 1987, 150: 269.

[10]

Johnson J B, Jones H, Latham B S. Optimization of photoconductivity in vacuum-evaporated tin sulfide thin films[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 1999, 14: 501.

[11]

Karami H, Babaei S. Application of tin sulfide-tin dioxide nanocomposite as oxygen gas sensing agent[J]. Int J Electrochem Sci, 2013, 8: 12078.

[12]

Jiang T, Very G, Ozin A. Adsorption and sensing properties of microporous layered tin sulfide materials[J]. J Mater Chem, 1998, 8: 1649.

[13]

Engelken R D, McCloud H E, Lec C. Low temperature chemical precipitation and vapor deposition of SnxS thin films[J]. J Electrochem Soc, 1987, 134: 2696.

[14]

Huang W, Cheng S, Zhou H. Electrical and optical properties of In-doped SnS thin films prepared by thermal evaporation[J]. ECS Trans, 2012, 44: 1295.

[15]

Hennayaka H M M N, Lee H S. Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the microstructural and optical properties of electrodeposited SnS thin films[J]. Electron Mater Lett, 2014, 10: 217.

[16]

Banai R E, Lee H, Zlotnikov S. Phase identification of RF-sputtered SnS thin films using rietveld analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns[J]. IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Tampa, FL, 2013: 2562.

[17]

Bade B P, Garje S S, Niwate Y S. Tribenzyl tin(IV) chloride thiosemicarbazones: novel single source precursors for growth of SnS thin films[J]. Chem Vapor Depos, 2008, 14: 292.

[18]

Sanchez-Juarez A, Ortiz A. Effects of precursor concentration on the optical and electrical properties of SnXSY thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 2002, 17: 93113.

[19]

Messaoudi M, Aida M S, Attaf N. Deposition of tin(II) sulfide thin films by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis: evidence of sulfur exo-diffusion[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Proc, 2014, 17: 38.

[20]

Thangaraju B, Kaliannan P. Spray pyrolytic deposition and characterization of SnS and SnS2 thin films[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2000, 33: 1054.

[21]

Avellaneda D, Krishnan B, Roy T K D. Modification of structure, morphology and physical properties of tin sulfide thin films by pulsed laser irradiation[J]. Appl Phys A, 2013, 110: 667.

[22]

Jaychandran M, Mohan S, Subramanian B. Studies on the brush plated SnS thin films[J]. J Mater Sci Lett, 2001, 20: 381.

[23]

De Kergommeaux A, Faure-Vincent J, Pron A. SnS thin films realized from colloidal nanocrystal inks[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2013, 535: 376.

[24]

De Kergommeaux A, Fiore A, Faure-Vincent J. Highly conductive CuInSe2 nanocrystals with inorganic surface ligands[J]. Mater Chem Phys, 2012, 136: 877.

[25]

Yu L, Zunger A. Identification of potential photovoltaic absorbers based on first-principles spectroscopic screening of materials[J]. Phys Rev Lett, 2012, 108: 068701.

[26]

Devika M, Reddy N K, Patolsky F. Ohmic contacts to SnS films: selection and estimation of thermal stability[J]. J Appl Phys, 2008, 104: 124503.

[27]

Turan E, Kul M, Aybek A S. Structural and optical properties of SnS semiconductor films produced by chemical bath deposition[J]. J Phys D: Appl Phys, 2009, 42: 245408.

[28]

Panda S K, Antonakos A, Liarokapis E. Optical properties of nanocrystalline SnS2 thin films[J]. Mater Res Bull, 2007, 42: 576.

[29]

Williamson G K, Hall W H. X-ray line broadening from filed aluminium and wolfram[J]. Acta Metall, 1953, 1: 22.

[30]

Guneri E, Gode F, Ulutas C. Properties of p-type SnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition[J]. Chalcogenide Lett, 2010, 7: 685.

[31]

Nikolic P M, Miljkovik L, Mihajlovic P. Splitting and coupling of lattice modes in the layer compound SnS[J]. J Phys C: Solid State Phys, 1977, 10.

[32]

Chandrasekhar H R, Humphreys R G, Zwick U. Infrared and Raman spectra of the IV-VI compounds SnS and SnSe[J]. Phys Rev B, 1977, 15: 2177.

[33]

Cheng S, Conibeer G. Physical properties of very thin SnS films deposited by thermal evaporation[J]. Thin Solid Films, 2011, 520: 837.

[34]

Jain P, Arun P. Parameters influencing the optical properties of SnS thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2013, 34: 093004.

[35]

Price L S, Parkin I P, Hardy A M E. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of tin sulfides (SnS, Sn2S3, and SnS2) on glass[J]. Chem Mater, 1999, 11: 1792.

[36]

Aksay S, Ozer T, Zor M. Vibrational and X-ray diffraction spectra of SnS film deposited by chemical bath deposition method[J]. Eur Phys J Appl Phys, 2009, 47: 30502.

[37]

Devika M, Reddy N K, Reddy S V. Influence of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the structural and electrical properties of SnS films[J]. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron, 2009, 20: 1129.

[38]

Devika M, Reddy N K, Ramesh K. Thickness effect on the physical properties of evaporated SnS films[J]. J Electochem Soc, 2007, 154.

[39]

Deshpande N G, Sagade A A, Gudage Y G. Growth and characterization of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin film deposited by} successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique[J]. J Alloy Compd, 2007, 436: 421.

[40]

Xu J, Wei G, Shi W. Preparation and characterization of chemically deposited SnS thin films[J]. Proc of SPIE Fifth International Conference on Thin Film Physics and Applications, 2004, 5774: 254.

[41]

Ristov M, Sinadinovski G, Grozdanov L. Chemical deposition of tin(II) sulphide thin films[J]. Thin Solid Films, 1989, 173: 53.

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S. H. Chaki, M. D. Chaudhary, M. P. Deshpande. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(5): 053001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/5/053001.

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Manuscript received: 18 August 2015 Manuscript revised: Online: Published: 01 May 2016

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