J. Semicond. > Volume 39 > Issue 1 > Article Number: 011001

Engineering in-plane silicon nanowire springs for highly stretchable electronics

Zhaoguo Xue , Taige Dong , Zhimin Zhu , Yaolong Zhao , Ying Sun and Linwei Yu ,

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Abstract: Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is unambiguously the most important semiconductor that underpins the development of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics, though the rigid and brittle nature of bulk c-Si makes it difficult to implement directly for stretchable applications. Fortunately, the one-dimensional (1D) geometry, or the line-shape, of Si nanowire (SiNW) can be engineered into elastic springs, which indicates an exciting opportunity to fabricate highly stretchable 1D c-Si channels. The implementation of such line-shape-engineering strategy demands both a tiny diameter of the SiNWs, in order to accommodate the strains under large stretching, and a precise growth location, orientation and path control to facilitate device integration. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progresses of an in-plane self-assembly growth of SiNW springs, via a new in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism, where mono-like but elastic SiNW springs are produced by surface-running metal droplets that absorb amorphous Si thin film as precursor. Then, the critical growth control and engineering parameters, the mechanical properties of the SiNW springs and the prospects of developing c-Si based stretchable electronics, will be addressed. This efficient line-shape-engineering strategy of SiNW springs, accomplished via a low temperature batch-manufacturing, holds a strong promise to extend the legend of modern Si technology into the emerging stretchable electronic applications, where the high carrier mobility, excellent stability and established doping and passivation controls of c-Si can be well inherited.

Key words: c-Si nanowiresin-plane solid-liquid-solidself-assemblystretchable electronics

Abstract: Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is unambiguously the most important semiconductor that underpins the development of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics, though the rigid and brittle nature of bulk c-Si makes it difficult to implement directly for stretchable applications. Fortunately, the one-dimensional (1D) geometry, or the line-shape, of Si nanowire (SiNW) can be engineered into elastic springs, which indicates an exciting opportunity to fabricate highly stretchable 1D c-Si channels. The implementation of such line-shape-engineering strategy demands both a tiny diameter of the SiNWs, in order to accommodate the strains under large stretching, and a precise growth location, orientation and path control to facilitate device integration. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progresses of an in-plane self-assembly growth of SiNW springs, via a new in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism, where mono-like but elastic SiNW springs are produced by surface-running metal droplets that absorb amorphous Si thin film as precursor. Then, the critical growth control and engineering parameters, the mechanical properties of the SiNW springs and the prospects of developing c-Si based stretchable electronics, will be addressed. This efficient line-shape-engineering strategy of SiNW springs, accomplished via a low temperature batch-manufacturing, holds a strong promise to extend the legend of modern Si technology into the emerging stretchable electronic applications, where the high carrier mobility, excellent stability and established doping and passivation controls of c-Si can be well inherited.

Key words: c-Si nanowiresin-plane solid-liquid-solidself-assemblystretchable electronics



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Wang Y, Zhu C, Pfattner R, et al. A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer. Sci Adv, 2017, 3: e1602076

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Lei Z, Wang Q, Sun S, et al. A bioinspired mineral hydrogel as a self-healable, mechanically adaptable ionic skin for highly sensitive pressure sensing. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1700321

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Lin P, Yan F. Organic thin-film transistors for chemical and biological sensing. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 34

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Zhu Y, Xu F, Qin Q, et al. Mechanical properties of vapor-liquid-solid synthesized silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2009, 9: 3934

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Khang D Y, Jiang H, Huang Y, et al. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science, 2006, 311: 208

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Kim H W, Shim S H. Helical nanostructures of SiOx synthesized through the heating of Co-coated substrates. Appl Surf Sci, 2007, 253: 3664

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Swain B S, Lee S S, Lee S H, et al. Transformation of silicon nanowires to nanocoils by annealing in reducing atmosphere. J Cryst Growth, 2011, 327: 276

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Tang Y H, Zhang Y F, Wang N, et al. Morphology of Si nanowires synthesized by high-temperature laser ablation. J Appl Phys, 1999, 85: 7981

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Tian B, Xie P, Kempa T J, et al. Single-crystalline kinked semiconductor nanowire superstructures. Nat Nano, 2009, 4: 824

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Lugstein A, Steinmair M, Hyun Y J, et al. Pressure-induced orientation control of the growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2008, 8: 2310

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Wagner R S, Ellis W C. Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth. Appl Phys Lett, 1964, 4: 89

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Xu F, Lu W, Zhu Y. Controlled 3D buckling of silicon nanowires for stretchable electronics. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 672

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Kim D H, Ahn J H, Choi W M, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits. Science, 2008, 320: 507

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Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U, et al. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 15894

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Sepulveda A C C, Cordero M S D, Carreño A A A, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon-based electronics. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110: 134103

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Rojas J P, Arevalo A, Foulds I G, et al. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105: 154101

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Kim J, Lee M, Shim H J, et al. Stretchable silicon nanoribbon electronics for skin prosthesis. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 5747

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Pevzner A, Engel Y, Elnathan R, et al. Confinement-guided shaping of semiconductor nanowires and nanoribbons: " writing with nanowires”. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 7

[34]

Gonzalez M, Axisa F, Bulcke M V, et al. Design of metal interconnects for stretchable electronic circuits. Microelectron Rel, 2008, 48: 825

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Vanfleteren J, Gonzalez M, Bossuyt F, et al. Printed circuit board technology inspired stretchable circuits. MRS Bull, 2012, 37: 254

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Yu L, Alet P J, Picardi G, et al. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires. Phys Rev Lett, 2009, 102: 125501

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Yu L, P Roca i Cabarrocas. Initial nucleation and growth of in-plane solid-liquid-solid silicon nanowires catalyzed by indium. Phys Rev B, 2009, 80: 085313

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Yu L, P Roca i Cabarrocas. Growth mechanism and dynamics of in-plane solid-liquid-solid silicon nanowires. Phys Rev B, 2010, 81: 085323

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Scarontich I, Car R, Parrinello M. Amorphous silicon studied by ab initio molecular dynamics: preparation, structure, and properties. Phys Rev B, 1991, 44: 11092

[40]

Roorda S, Doorn S, Sinke W C, et al. Calorimetric evidence for structural relaxation in amorphous silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1989, 62: 1880

[41]

Yu L P. Morphology control and growth dynamics of in-plane solid–liquid–solid silicon nanowires. Physica E, 2012, 44: 1045

[42]

Xue Z, Xu M, Li X, et al. In-plane self-turning and twin dynamics renders large stretchability to mono-like zigzag silicon nanowire springs. Adv Func Mater, 2016, 26: 5352

[43]

Xue Z, Xu M, Zhao Y, et al. Engineering island-chain silicon nanowires via a droplet mediated Plateau-Rayleigh transformation. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 12836

[44]

Shin N, Chi M, Howe J Y, et al. Rational defect introduction in silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2013, 13: 1928

[45]

Algra R E, Verheijen M A, Borgstrom M T, et al. Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. Nature, 2008, 456: 369

[46]

Li X, Wei X, Xu T, et al. Remarkable and crystal-structure-dependent piezoelectric and piezoresistive effects of InAs nanowires. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 2852

[47]

Li X, Wei X L, Xu T T, et al. Mechanical properties of individual InAs nanowires studied by tensile tests. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 104: 103110

[48]

Xu M, Xue Z, Yu L, et al. Operating principles of in-plane silicon nanowires at simple step-edges. Nanoscale, 2015, 7: 5197

[49]

Yu L, Moustapha O, Oudwan M, et al. Guided growth of in-plane lateral SiNWs led by indium catalysts. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, 2009, 1178E: AA07

[50]

Yu L, Oudwan M, Moustapha O, et al. Guided growth of in-plane silicon nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95: 113106

[51]

Yu L, Chen W, O'Donnell B, et al. Growth-in-place deployment of in-plane silicon nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 99: 203104

[52]

Xu M, Wang J, Xue Z, et al. High performance transparent in-plane silicon nanowire Fin-TFTs via a robust nano-droplet-scanning crystallization dynamics. Nanoscale, 2017, 9: 10350

[53]

Chen W, Yu L, Misra S, et al. Incorporation and redistribution of impurities into silicon nanowires during metal-particle-assisted growth. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4134

[54]

Xue Z, Sun M, Zhao Y, et al. Deterministic line-shape programming of silicon nanowires for extremely stretchable springs and electronics. Nano Lett, 2017, 17: 7638

[55]

O'Mara W, Herring R B, Hunt L P. Handbook of semiconductor silicon technology. Crest Publishing House, 2007

[1]

Kim J, Salvatore G A, Araki H, et al. Stretchable optoelectronic systems for wireless optical characterization of the skin. Sci Adv, 2016, 2: e1600418

[2]

Xu B, Rogers J A. Mechanics-driven approaches to manufacturing—A perspective. Extrem Mech Lett, 2016, 7: 44

[3]

Kim D H, Ghaffari R, Lu N, et al. Flexible and stretchable electronics for biointegrated devices. Ann Rev Biomed Eng, 2012, 14: 113

[4]

Hussain A M, Hussain M M. CMOS-technology-enabled flexible and stretchable electronics for internet of everything applications. Adv Mater, 2016, 28: 4219

[5]

Hammock M L, Chortos A, Tee B C K, et al. The evolution of electronic skin (e-skin): a brief history, design considerations, and recent progress. Adv Mater, 2013, 25: 5997

[6]

Cheng T, Zhang Y, Lai. Stretchable thin-film electrodes for flexible electronics with high deformability and stretchability. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 3349

[7]

Wang Y, Zhu C, Pfattner R, et al. A highly stretchable, transparent, and conductive polymer. Sci Adv, 2017, 3: e1602076

[8]

Roberts M E, Mannsfeld S C B, Stoltenberg R M, et al. Flexible, plastic transistor-based chemical sensors. Org Electron, 2009, 10: 377

[9]

Sokolov A N, Roberts M E, Bao Z. Fabrication of low-cost electronic biosensors. Mater Today, 2009, 12: 12

[10]

Arias A C, MacKenzie J D, McCulloch I, et al. Materials and applications for large area electronics: solution-based approaches. Chem Rev, 2010, 110: 3

[11]

Lei Z, Wang Q, Sun S, et al. A bioinspired mineral hydrogel as a self-healable, mechanically adaptable ionic skin for highly sensitive pressure sensing. Adv Mater, 2017, 29: 1700321

[12]

Lin P, Yan F. Organic thin-film transistors for chemical and biological sensing. Adv Mater, 2012, 24: 34

[13]

Wang L, Liu P, Guan P, et al. In situ atomic-scale observation of continuous and reversible lattice deformation beyond the elastic limit. Nat Commun, 2013, 4: 2413

[14]

Wang L, Zheng K, Zhang Z, et al. Direct atomic-scale imaging about the mechanisms of ultralarge bent straining in Si nanowires. Nano Lett, 2011, 11: 2382

[15]

Zheng K, Han X, Wang L, et al. Atomic mechanisms governing the elastic limit and the incipient plasticity of bending Si nanowires. Nano Lett, 2009, 9: 2471

[16]

Zhu Y, Xu F, Qin Q, et al. Mechanical properties of vapor-liquid-solid synthesized silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2009, 9: 3934

[17]

Khang D Y, Jiang H, Huang Y, et al. A stretchable form of single-crystal silicon for high-performance electronics on rubber substrates. Science, 2006, 311: 208

[18]

Kim H W, Shim S H. Helical nanostructures of SiOx synthesized through the heating of Co-coated substrates. Appl Surf Sci, 2007, 253: 3664

[19]

Zhang H F, Wang C M, Buck E C, et al. Synthesis, characterization, and manipulation of helical SiO2 nanosprings. Nano Lett, 2003, 3: 577

[20]

Swain B S, Lee S S, Lee S H, et al. Transformation of silicon nanowires to nanocoils by annealing in reducing atmosphere. J Cryst Growth, 2011, 327: 276

[21]

Tang Y H, Zhang Y F, Wang N, et al. Morphology of Si nanowires synthesized by high-temperature laser ablation. J Appl Phys, 1999, 85: 7981

[22]

Tian B, Xie P, Kempa T J, et al. Single-crystalline kinked semiconductor nanowire superstructures. Nat Nano, 2009, 4: 824

[23]

Lugstein A, Steinmair M, Hyun Y J, et al. Pressure-induced orientation control of the growth of epitaxial silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2008, 8: 2310

[24]

Musin I R, Filler M A. Chemical control of semiconductor nanowire kinking and superstructure. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 3363

[25]

Schmidt V, Wittemann J V, Senz S, et al. Silicon nanowires: a review on aspects of their growth and their electrical properties. Adv Mater, 2009, 21: 2681

[26]

Wagner R S, Ellis W C. Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth. Appl Phys Lett, 1964, 4: 89

[27]

Xu F, Lu W, Zhu Y. Controlled 3D buckling of silicon nanowires for stretchable electronics. ACS Nano, 2011, 5: 672

[28]

Kim D H, Ahn J H, Choi W M, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon integrated circuits. Science, 2008, 320: 507

[29]

Jang K I, Li K, Chung H U, et al. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics. Nat Commun, 2017, 8: 15894

[30]

Sepulveda A C C, Cordero M S D, Carreño A A A, et al. Stretchable and foldable silicon-based electronics. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110: 134103

[31]

Rojas J P, Arevalo A, Foulds I G, et al. Design and characterization of ultra-stretchable monolithic silicon fabric. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 105: 154101

[32]

Kim J, Lee M, Shim H J, et al. Stretchable silicon nanoribbon electronics for skin prosthesis. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 5747

[33]

Pevzner A, Engel Y, Elnathan R, et al. Confinement-guided shaping of semiconductor nanowires and nanoribbons: " writing with nanowires”. Nano Lett, 2012, 12: 7

[34]

Gonzalez M, Axisa F, Bulcke M V, et al. Design of metal interconnects for stretchable electronic circuits. Microelectron Rel, 2008, 48: 825

[35]

Vanfleteren J, Gonzalez M, Bossuyt F, et al. Printed circuit board technology inspired stretchable circuits. MRS Bull, 2012, 37: 254

[36]

Yu L, Alet P J, Picardi G, et al. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires. Phys Rev Lett, 2009, 102: 125501

[37]

Yu L, P Roca i Cabarrocas. Initial nucleation and growth of in-plane solid-liquid-solid silicon nanowires catalyzed by indium. Phys Rev B, 2009, 80: 085313

[38]

Yu L, P Roca i Cabarrocas. Growth mechanism and dynamics of in-plane solid-liquid-solid silicon nanowires. Phys Rev B, 2010, 81: 085323

[39]

Scarontich I, Car R, Parrinello M. Amorphous silicon studied by ab initio molecular dynamics: preparation, structure, and properties. Phys Rev B, 1991, 44: 11092

[40]

Roorda S, Doorn S, Sinke W C, et al. Calorimetric evidence for structural relaxation in amorphous silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1989, 62: 1880

[41]

Yu L P. Morphology control and growth dynamics of in-plane solid–liquid–solid silicon nanowires. Physica E, 2012, 44: 1045

[42]

Xue Z, Xu M, Li X, et al. In-plane self-turning and twin dynamics renders large stretchability to mono-like zigzag silicon nanowire springs. Adv Func Mater, 2016, 26: 5352

[43]

Xue Z, Xu M, Zhao Y, et al. Engineering island-chain silicon nanowires via a droplet mediated Plateau-Rayleigh transformation. Nat Commun, 2016, 7: 12836

[44]

Shin N, Chi M, Howe J Y, et al. Rational defect introduction in silicon nanowires. Nano Lett, 2013, 13: 1928

[45]

Algra R E, Verheijen M A, Borgstrom M T, et al. Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires. Nature, 2008, 456: 369

[46]

Li X, Wei X, Xu T, et al. Remarkable and crystal-structure-dependent piezoelectric and piezoresistive effects of InAs nanowires. Adv Mater, 2015, 27: 2852

[47]

Li X, Wei X L, Xu T T, et al. Mechanical properties of individual InAs nanowires studied by tensile tests. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 104: 103110

[48]

Xu M, Xue Z, Yu L, et al. Operating principles of in-plane silicon nanowires at simple step-edges. Nanoscale, 2015, 7: 5197

[49]

Yu L, Moustapha O, Oudwan M, et al. Guided growth of in-plane lateral SiNWs led by indium catalysts. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc, 2009, 1178E: AA07

[50]

Yu L, Oudwan M, Moustapha O, et al. Guided growth of in-plane silicon nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 95: 113106

[51]

Yu L, Chen W, O'Donnell B, et al. Growth-in-place deployment of in-plane silicon nanowires. Appl Phys Lett, 2011, 99: 203104

[52]

Xu M, Wang J, Xue Z, et al. High performance transparent in-plane silicon nanowire Fin-TFTs via a robust nano-droplet-scanning crystallization dynamics. Nanoscale, 2017, 9: 10350

[53]

Chen W, Yu L, Misra S, et al. Incorporation and redistribution of impurities into silicon nanowires during metal-particle-assisted growth. Nat Commun, 2014, 5: 4134

[54]

Xue Z, Sun M, Zhao Y, et al. Deterministic line-shape programming of silicon nanowires for extremely stretchable springs and electronics. Nano Lett, 2017, 17: 7638

[55]

O'Mara W, Herring R B, Hunt L P. Handbook of semiconductor silicon technology. Crest Publishing House, 2007

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Z G Xue, T G Dong, Z M Zhu, Y L Zhao, Y Sun, L W Yu, Engineering in-plane silicon nanowire springs for highly stretchable electronics[J]. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(1): 011001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011001.

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Manuscript received: 06 October 2017 Manuscript revised: 01 December 2017 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 27 December 2017 Published: 01 January 2018

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