J. Semicond. > Volume 34 > Issue 4 > Article Number: 045011

A low noise multi-channel readout IC for X-ray cargo inspection

Xu Wang , , Hongyan Yang , Ying Yuan and Wuchen Wu

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Abstract: A low noise multi-channel readout integrated circuit (IC) which converts a detector current to analog voltage for X-ray cargo inspection is described. The readout IC provides 32 channels of a circuit having a maximum dynamic range of 15 bit and is comprised of integrator gain selection, timing generator, shift register chain, integrator array, sample/hold (S/H) stage amplifier etc. It was fabricated using 0.6 μm standard CMOS process, and occupies a die area of 2.7×13.9 mm2. It operates at 1 MHz, consumes 100 mW from a 5 V supply and 4.096 V as reference, and has a measured output noise of 85 μVrms on 63 pF of integrator gain capacitance and 440 pF of photodiode terminal capacitance so that steel plate penetration thickness can reach more than 400 mm.

Key words: low noisemulti-channel readout ICdynamic rangeX-ray cargo inspection

Abstract: A low noise multi-channel readout integrated circuit (IC) which converts a detector current to analog voltage for X-ray cargo inspection is described. The readout IC provides 32 channels of a circuit having a maximum dynamic range of 15 bit and is comprised of integrator gain selection, timing generator, shift register chain, integrator array, sample/hold (S/H) stage amplifier etc. It was fabricated using 0.6 μm standard CMOS process, and occupies a die area of 2.7×13.9 mm2. It operates at 1 MHz, consumes 100 mW from a 5 V supply and 4.096 V as reference, and has a measured output noise of 85 μVrms on 63 pF of integrator gain capacitance and 440 pF of photodiode terminal capacitance so that steel plate penetration thickness can reach more than 400 mm.

Key words: low noisemulti-channel readout ICdynamic rangeX-ray cargo inspection



References:

[1]

Garverick S L, Skrenes L, Baertsch R D. A 32-channel charge readout IC for programmable, nonlinear quantization of multichannel detector data[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 1995, 30(5): 533. doi: 10.1109/4.384166

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Stanton J C. A low power low noise amplifier for a 128 channel detector read-out chip[J]. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 1989, 36(1): 522. doi: 10.1109/23.34494

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Holloway P, O'Donoghue G. An 8-channel 16 b charge-to-digital converter for imaging applications[J]. IEEE 39th International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers, 1992: 176.

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Kovacs R. X-ray inspection systems and applications[J]. 27th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology:Meeting the Challenges of Electronics Technology Progress, 2004, 1: 14.

[5]

Eilbert R F, Shi S. Recent advances in imaging for X-ray inspection systems[J]. 38th Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 2004: 252.

[6]

Ries H, Hemp F, Koch C. X-ray cargo inspection[J]. SPIE, 1994, 2276: 234.

[7]

Kim B C, Jeon J, Shin H. Temporal noise analysis and reduction method in CMOS image sensor readout circuit[J]. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2009, 56(11): 2489. doi: 10.1109/TED.2009.2030619

[8]

Wang X, Yang H Y, Wu W C. Study on low noise CMOS image sensor[J]. 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2010, 5: 2062.

[1]

Garverick S L, Skrenes L, Baertsch R D. A 32-channel charge readout IC for programmable, nonlinear quantization of multichannel detector data[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 1995, 30(5): 533. doi: 10.1109/4.384166

[2]

Stanton J C. A low power low noise amplifier for a 128 channel detector read-out chip[J]. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci, 1989, 36(1): 522. doi: 10.1109/23.34494

[3]

Holloway P, O'Donoghue G. An 8-channel 16 b charge-to-digital converter for imaging applications[J]. IEEE 39th International Solid-State Circuits Conference, Digest of Technical Papers, 1992: 176.

[4]

Kovacs R. X-ray inspection systems and applications[J]. 27th International Spring Seminar on Electronics Technology:Meeting the Challenges of Electronics Technology Progress, 2004, 1: 14.

[5]

Eilbert R F, Shi S. Recent advances in imaging for X-ray inspection systems[J]. 38th Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 2004: 252.

[6]

Ries H, Hemp F, Koch C. X-ray cargo inspection[J]. SPIE, 1994, 2276: 234.

[7]

Kim B C, Jeon J, Shin H. Temporal noise analysis and reduction method in CMOS image sensor readout circuit[J]. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2009, 56(11): 2489. doi: 10.1109/TED.2009.2030619

[8]

Wang X, Yang H Y, Wu W C. Study on low noise CMOS image sensor[J]. 3rd International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2010, 5: 2062.

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X Wang, H Y Yang, Y Yuan, W C Wu. A low noise multi-channel readout IC for X-ray cargo inspection[J]. J. Semicond., 2013, 34(4): 045011. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/34/4/045011.

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Manuscript received: 24 August 2012 Manuscript revised: 07 November 2012 Online: Published: 01 April 2013

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