Review Articles
A review of ToF-based LiDAR
Jie Ma, Shenglong Zhuo, Lei Qiu, Yuzhu Gao, Yifan Wu, Ming Zhong, Rui Bai, Miao Sun, Patrick Yin Chiang
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(10): 101201  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/24040015

In recent years, propelled by the rapid iterative advancements in digital imaging technology and the semiconductor industry, encompassing microelectronic design, manufacturing, packaging, and testing, time-of-flight (ToF)-based imaging systems for acquiring depth information have garnered considerable attention from both academia and industry. This technology has emerged as a focal point of research within the realm of 3D imaging. Owing to its relatively straightforward principles and exceptional performance, ToF technology finds extensive applications across various domains including human−computer interaction, autonomous driving, industrial inspection, medical and healthcare, augmented reality, smart homes, and 3D reconstruction, among others. Notably, the increasing maturity of ToF-based LiDAR systems is evident in current developments. This paper comprehensively reviews the fundamental principles of ToF technology and LiDAR systems, alongside recent research advancements. It elucidates the innovative aspects and technical challenges encountered in both transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), providing detailed discussions on corresponding solutions. Furthermore, the paper explores prospective avenues for future research, offering valuable insights for subsequent investigations.

In recent years, propelled by the rapid iterative advancements in digital imaging technology and the semiconductor industry, encompassing microelectronic design, manufacturing, packaging, and testing, time-of-flight (ToF)-based imaging systems for acquiring depth information have garnered considerable attention from both academia and industry. This technology has emerged as a focal point of research within the realm of 3D imaging. Owing to its relatively straightforward principles and exceptional performance, ToF technology finds extensive applications across various domains including human−computer interaction, autonomous driving, industrial inspection, medical and healthcare, augmented reality, smart homes, and 3D reconstruction, among others. Notably, the increasing maturity of ToF-based LiDAR systems is evident in current developments. This paper comprehensively reviews the fundamental principles of ToF technology and LiDAR systems, alongside recent research advancements. It elucidates the innovative aspects and technical challenges encountered in both transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), providing detailed discussions on corresponding solutions. Furthermore, the paper explores prospective avenues for future research, offering valuable insights for subsequent investigations.
Recent progress on fabrication, spectroscopy properties, and device applications in Sn-doped CdS micro-nano structures
Bo Cao, Ye Tian, Huan Fei Wen, Hao Guo, Xiaoyu Wu, Liangjie Li, Zhenrong Zhang, Lai Liu, Qiang Zhu, Jun Tang, Jun Liu
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(9): 091101  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/24040041

One-dimensional semiconductor materials possess excellent photoelectric properties and potential for the construction of integrated nanodevices. Among them, Sn-doped CdS has different micro-nano structures, including nanoribbons, nanowires, comb-like structures, and superlattices, with rich optical microcavity modes, excellent optical properties, and a wide range of application fields. This article reviews the research progress of various micrometer structures of Sn-doped CdS, systematically elaborates the effects of different growth conditions on the preparation of Sn-doped CdS micro-nano structures, as well as the spectral characteristics of these structures and their potential applications in certain fields. With the continuous progress of nanotechnology, it is expected that Sn-doped CdS micro-nano structures will achieve more breakthroughs in the field of optoelectronics and form cross-integration with other fields, jointly promoting scientific, technological, and social development.

One-dimensional semiconductor materials possess excellent photoelectric properties and potential for the construction of integrated nanodevices. Among them, Sn-doped CdS has different micro-nano structures, including nanoribbons, nanowires, comb-like structures, and superlattices, with rich optical microcavity modes, excellent optical properties, and a wide range of application fields. This article reviews the research progress of various micrometer structures of Sn-doped CdS, systematically elaborates the effects of different growth conditions on the preparation of Sn-doped CdS micro-nano structures, as well as the spectral characteristics of these structures and their potential applications in certain fields. With the continuous progress of nanotechnology, it is expected that Sn-doped CdS micro-nano structures will achieve more breakthroughs in the field of optoelectronics and form cross-integration with other fields, jointly promoting scientific, technological, and social development.
Review of the SiC LDMOS power device
Ziwei Hu, Jiafei Yao, Ang Li, Qi Sun, Man Li, Kemeng Yang, Jun Zhang, Jing Chen, Maolin Zhang, Yufeng Guo
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(8): 081501  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/24010029

Silicon carbide (SiC), as a third-generation semiconductor material, possesses exceptional material properties that significantly enhance the performance of power devices. The SiC lateral double-diffused metal–oxide–semiconductor (LDMOS) power devices have undergone continuous optimization, resulting in an increase in breakdown voltage (BV) and ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). This paper has summarized the structural optimizations and experimental progress of SiC LDMOS power devices, including the trench-gate technology, reduced surface field (RESURF) technology, doping technology, junction termination techniques and so on. The paper is aimed at enhancing the understanding of the operational mechanisms and providing guidelines for the further development of SiC LDMOS power devices.

Silicon carbide (SiC), as a third-generation semiconductor material, possesses exceptional material properties that significantly enhance the performance of power devices. The SiC lateral double-diffused metal–oxide–semiconductor (LDMOS) power devices have undergone continuous optimization, resulting in an increase in breakdown voltage (BV) and ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp). This paper has summarized the structural optimizations and experimental progress of SiC LDMOS power devices, including the trench-gate technology, reduced surface field (RESURF) technology, doping technology, junction termination techniques and so on. The paper is aimed at enhancing the understanding of the operational mechanisms and providing guidelines for the further development of SiC LDMOS power devices.
High-precision X-ray characterization for basic materials in modern high-end integrated circuit
Weiran Zhao, Qiuqi Mo, Li Zheng, Zhongliang Li, Xiaowei Zhang, Yuehui Yu
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(7): 071101  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/24030016

Semiconductor materials exemplify humanity's unwavering pursuit of enhanced performance, efficiency, and functionality in electronic devices. From its early iterations to the advanced variants of today, this field has undergone an extraordinary evolution. As the reliability requirements of integrated circuits continue to increase, the industry is placing greater emphasis on the crystal qualities. Consequently, conducting a range of characterization tests on the crystals has become necessary. This paper will examine the correlation between crystal quality, device performance, and production yield, emphasizing the significance of crystal characterization tests and the important role of high-precision synchrotron radiation X-ray topography characterization in semiconductor analysis. Finally, we will cover the specific applications of synchrotron radiation characterization in the development of semiconductor materials.

Semiconductor materials exemplify humanity's unwavering pursuit of enhanced performance, efficiency, and functionality in electronic devices. From its early iterations to the advanced variants of today, this field has undergone an extraordinary evolution. As the reliability requirements of integrated circuits continue to increase, the industry is placing greater emphasis on the crystal qualities. Consequently, conducting a range of characterization tests on the crystals has become necessary. This paper will examine the correlation between crystal quality, device performance, and production yield, emphasizing the significance of crystal characterization tests and the important role of high-precision synchrotron radiation X-ray topography characterization in semiconductor analysis. Finally, we will cover the specific applications of synchrotron radiation characterization in the development of semiconductor materials.
Neuromorphic circuits based on memristors: endowing robots with a human-like brain
Xuemei Wang, Fan Yang, Qing Liu, Zien Zhang, Zhixing Wen, Jiangang Chen, Qirui Zhang, Cheng Wang, Ge Wang, Fucai Liu
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(6): 061301  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/23120037

Robots are widely used, providing significant convenience in daily life and production. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing in recent years, the realization of more intelligent robots through a profound intersection of neuroscience and robotics has received much attention. Neuromorphic circuits based on memristors used to construct hardware neural networks have proved to be a promising solution of shattering traditional control limitations in the field of robot control, showcasing characteristics that enhance robot intelligence, speed, and energy efficiency. Starting with introducing the working mechanism of memristors and peripheral circuit design, this review gives a comprehensive analysis on the biomimetic information processing and biomimetic driving operations achieved through the utilization of neuromorphic circuits in brain-like control. Four hardware neural network approaches, including digital-analog hybrid circuit design, novel device structure design, multi-regulation mechanism, and crossbar array, are summarized, which can well simulate the motor decision-making mechanism, multi-information integration and parallel control of brain at the hardware level. It will be definitely conductive to promote the application of memristor-based neuromorphic circuits in areas such as intelligent robotics, artificial intelligence, and neural computing. Finally, a conclusion and future prospects are discussed.

Robots are widely used, providing significant convenience in daily life and production. With the rapid development of artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing in recent years, the realization of more intelligent robots through a profound intersection of neuroscience and robotics has received much attention. Neuromorphic circuits based on memristors used to construct hardware neural networks have proved to be a promising solution of shattering traditional control limitations in the field of robot control, showcasing characteristics that enhance robot intelligence, speed, and energy efficiency. Starting with introducing the working mechanism of memristors and peripheral circuit design, this review gives a comprehensive analysis on the biomimetic information processing and biomimetic driving operations achieved through the utilization of neuromorphic circuits in brain-like control. Four hardware neural network approaches, including digital-analog hybrid circuit design, novel device structure design, multi-regulation mechanism, and crossbar array, are summarized, which can well simulate the motor decision-making mechanism, multi-information integration and parallel control of brain at the hardware level. It will be definitely conductive to promote the application of memristor-based neuromorphic circuits in areas such as intelligent robotics, artificial intelligence, and neural computing. Finally, a conclusion and future prospects are discussed.
Complementary memtransistors for neuromorphic computing: How, what and why
Qi Chen, Yue Zhou, Weiwei Xiong, Zirui Chen, Yasai Wang, Xiangshui Miao, Yuhui He
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(6): 061701  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/23120051

Memtransistors in which the source−drain channel conductance can be nonvolatilely manipulated through the gate signals have emerged as promising components for implementing neuromorphic computing. On the other side, it is known that the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors have played the fundamental role in the modern integrated circuit technology. Therefore, will complementary memtransistors (CMT) also play such a role in the future neuromorphic circuits and chips? In this review, various types of materials and physical mechanisms for constructing CMT (how) are inspected with their merits and need-to-address challenges discussed. Then the unique properties (what) and potential applications of CMT in different learning algorithms/scenarios of spiking neural networks (why) are reviewed, including supervised rule, reinforcement one, dynamic vision with in-sensor computing, etc. Through exploiting the complementary structure-related novel functions, significant reduction of hardware consuming, enhancement of energy/efficiency ratio and other advantages have been gained, illustrating the alluring prospect of design technology co-optimization (DTCO) of CMT towards neuromorphic computing.

Memtransistors in which the source−drain channel conductance can be nonvolatilely manipulated through the gate signals have emerged as promising components for implementing neuromorphic computing. On the other side, it is known that the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors have played the fundamental role in the modern integrated circuit technology. Therefore, will complementary memtransistors (CMT) also play such a role in the future neuromorphic circuits and chips? In this review, various types of materials and physical mechanisms for constructing CMT (how) are inspected with their merits and need-to-address challenges discussed. Then the unique properties (what) and potential applications of CMT in different learning algorithms/scenarios of spiking neural networks (why) are reviewed, including supervised rule, reinforcement one, dynamic vision with in-sensor computing, etc. Through exploiting the complementary structure-related novel functions, significant reduction of hardware consuming, enhancement of energy/efficiency ratio and other advantages have been gained, illustrating the alluring prospect of design technology co-optimization (DTCO) of CMT towards neuromorphic computing.
Flexible perovskite light-emitting diodes for display applications and beyond
Yongqi Zhang, Shahbaz Ahmed Khan, Dongxiang Luo, Guijun Li
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(5): 051601  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/45/5/051601

The flexible perovskite light-emitting diodes (FPeLEDs), which can be expediently integrated to portable and wearable devices, have shown great potential in various applications. The FPeLEDs inherit the unique optical properties of metal halide perovskites, such as tunable bandgap, narrow emission linewidth, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and particularly, the soft nature of lattice. At present, substantial efforts have been made for FPeLEDs with encouraging external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.5%. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in FPeLEDs, focusing on the strategy developed for perovskite emission layers and flexible electrodes to facilitate the optoelectrical and mechanical performance. In addition, we present relevant applications of FPeLEDs in displays and beyond. Finally, perspective toward the future development and applications of flexible PeLEDs are also discussed.

The flexible perovskite light-emitting diodes (FPeLEDs), which can be expediently integrated to portable and wearable devices, have shown great potential in various applications. The FPeLEDs inherit the unique optical properties of metal halide perovskites, such as tunable bandgap, narrow emission linewidth, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and particularly, the soft nature of lattice. At present, substantial efforts have been made for FPeLEDs with encouraging external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.5%. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in FPeLEDs, focusing on the strategy developed for perovskite emission layers and flexible electrodes to facilitate the optoelectrical and mechanical performance. In addition, we present relevant applications of FPeLEDs in displays and beyond. Finally, perspective toward the future development and applications of flexible PeLEDs are also discussed.
Recent advances in two-dimensional photovoltaic devices
Haoyun Wang, Xingyu Song, Zexin Li, Dongyan Li, Xiang Xu, Yunxin Chen, Pengbin Liu, Xing Zhou, Tianyou Zhai
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(5): 051701  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/45/5/051701

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous interest in view of the outstanding optoelectronic properties, showing new possibilities for future photovoltaic devices toward high performance, high specific power and flexibility. In recent years, substantial works have focused on 2D photovoltaic devices, and great progress has been achieved. Here, we present the review of recent advances in 2D photovoltaic devices, focusing on 2D-material-based Schottky junctions, homojunctions, 2D−2D heterojunctions, 2D−3D heterojunctions, and bulk photovoltaic effect devices. Furthermore, advanced strategies for improving the photovoltaic performances are demonstrated in detail. Finally, conclusions and outlooks are delivered, providing a guideline for the further development of 2D photovoltaic devices.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted tremendous interest in view of the outstanding optoelectronic properties, showing new possibilities for future photovoltaic devices toward high performance, high specific power and flexibility. In recent years, substantial works have focused on 2D photovoltaic devices, and great progress has been achieved. Here, we present the review of recent advances in 2D photovoltaic devices, focusing on 2D-material-based Schottky junctions, homojunctions, 2D−2D heterojunctions, 2D−3D heterojunctions, and bulk photovoltaic effect devices. Furthermore, advanced strategies for improving the photovoltaic performances are demonstrated in detail. Finally, conclusions and outlooks are delivered, providing a guideline for the further development of 2D photovoltaic devices.
Light-emitting devices based on atomically thin MoSe2
Xinyu Zhang, Xuewen Zhang, Hanwei Hu, Vanessa Li Zhang, Weidong Xiao, Guangchao Shi, Jingyuan Qiao, Nan Huang, Ting Yu, Jingzhi Shang
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(4): 041701  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/45/4/041701

Atomically thin MoSe2 layers, as a core member of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family, benefit from their appealing properties, including tunable band gaps, high exciton binding energies, and giant oscillator strengths, thus providing an intriguing platform for optoelectronic applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), field-effect transistors (FETs), single-photon emitters (SPEs), and coherent light sources (CLSs). Moreover, these MoSe2 layers can realize strong excitonic emission in the near-infrared wavelengths, which can be combined with the silicon-based integration technologies and further encourage the development of the new generation technologies of on-chip optical interconnection, quantum computing, and quantum information processing. Herein, we overview the state-of-the-art applications of light-emitting devices based on two-dimensional MoSe2 layers. Firstly, we introduce recent developments in excitonic emission features from atomically thin MoSe2 and their dependences on typical physical fields. Next, we focus on the exciton-polaritons and plasmon-exciton polaritons in MoSe2 coupled to the diverse forms of optical microcavities. Then, we highlight the promising applications of LEDs, SPEs, and CLSs based on MoSe2 and their heterostructures. Finally, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for high-quality emission of MoSe2 and high-performance light-emitting devices.

Atomically thin MoSe2 layers, as a core member of the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family, benefit from their appealing properties, including tunable band gaps, high exciton binding energies, and giant oscillator strengths, thus providing an intriguing platform for optoelectronic applications of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), field-effect transistors (FETs), single-photon emitters (SPEs), and coherent light sources (CLSs). Moreover, these MoSe2 layers can realize strong excitonic emission in the near-infrared wavelengths, which can be combined with the silicon-based integration technologies and further encourage the development of the new generation technologies of on-chip optical interconnection, quantum computing, and quantum information processing. Herein, we overview the state-of-the-art applications of light-emitting devices based on two-dimensional MoSe2 layers. Firstly, we introduce recent developments in excitonic emission features from atomically thin MoSe2 and their dependences on typical physical fields. Next, we focus on the exciton-polaritons and plasmon-exciton polaritons in MoSe2 coupled to the diverse forms of optical microcavities. Then, we highlight the promising applications of LEDs, SPEs, and CLSs based on MoSe2 and their heterostructures. Finally, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for high-quality emission of MoSe2 and high-performance light-emitting devices.
Development of in situ characterization techniques in molecular beam epitaxy
Chao Shen, Wenkang Zhan, Manyang Li, Zhenyu Sun, Jian Tang, Zhaofeng Wu, Chi Xu, Bo Xu, Chao Zhao, Zhanguo Wang
J. Semicond.  2024, 45(3): 031301  doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/45/3/031301

Ex situ characterization techniques in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have inherent limitations, such as being prone to sample contamination and unstable surfaces during sample transfer from the MBE chamber. In recent years, the need for improved accuracy and reliability in measurement has driven the increasing adoption of in situ characterization techniques. These techniques, such as reflection high-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, allow direct observation of film growth processes in real time without exposing the sample to air, hence offering insights into the growth mechanisms of epitaxial films with controlled properties. By combining multiple in situ characterization techniques with MBE, researchers can better understand film growth processes, realizing novel materials with customized properties and extensive applications. This review aims to overview the benefits and achievements of in situ characterization techniques in MBE and their applications for material science research. In addition, through further analysis of these techniques regarding their challenges and potential solutions, particularly highlighting the assistance of machine learning to correlate in situ characterization with other material information, we hope to provide a guideline for future efforts in the development of novel monitoring and control schemes for MBE growth processes with improved material properties.

Ex situ characterization techniques in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) have inherent limitations, such as being prone to sample contamination and unstable surfaces during sample transfer from the MBE chamber. In recent years, the need for improved accuracy and reliability in measurement has driven the increasing adoption of in situ characterization techniques. These techniques, such as reflection high-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, allow direct observation of film growth processes in real time without exposing the sample to air, hence offering insights into the growth mechanisms of epitaxial films with controlled properties. By combining multiple in situ characterization techniques with MBE, researchers can better understand film growth processes, realizing novel materials with customized properties and extensive applications. This review aims to overview the benefits and achievements of in situ characterization techniques in MBE and their applications for material science research. In addition, through further analysis of these techniques regarding their challenges and potential solutions, particularly highlighting the assistance of machine learning to correlate in situ characterization with other material information, we hope to provide a guideline for future efforts in the development of novel monitoring and control schemes for MBE growth processes with improved material properties.
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