J. Semicond. > Volume 38 > Issue 5 > Article Number: 054007

A high-efficiency grating coupler between single-mode fiber and silicon-on-insulator waveguide

Rongrui Liu , Yubing Wang , Dongdong Yin , Han Ye , Xiaohong Yang and Qin Han ,

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Abstract: We present the design of a diffractive grating structure and get the optimal parameters which can achieve more than 75% coupling efficiency (CE) between single-mode fiber and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide through 2D finite-different time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The proposed architecture has a uniform structure with no bottom reflection element or silicon overlay. The structure, including grating couplers, adiabatic tapers and interconnection waveguides can be fabricated on the SOI waveguide with only a single electron-beam lithography (ICP) step, which is CMOS-compatible. A relatively high coupling efficiency of 47.2% was obtained at a wavelength of 1562 nm.

Key words: grating couplercoupling efficiencysilicon-on-insulator waveguidesingle-mode fiberintegrated optics

Abstract: We present the design of a diffractive grating structure and get the optimal parameters which can achieve more than 75% coupling efficiency (CE) between single-mode fiber and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide through 2D finite-different time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The proposed architecture has a uniform structure with no bottom reflection element or silicon overlay. The structure, including grating couplers, adiabatic tapers and interconnection waveguides can be fabricated on the SOI waveguide with only a single electron-beam lithography (ICP) step, which is CMOS-compatible. A relatively high coupling efficiency of 47.2% was obtained at a wavelength of 1562 nm.

Key words: grating couplercoupling efficiencysilicon-on-insulator waveguidesingle-mode fiberintegrated optics



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[3]

Streshinsky M, Ding R, Liu Y. Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm[J]. Opt Express, 2013, 21: 30350. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.030350

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Li G, Yao J, Thacker H. Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macro-chip interconnects[J]. Opt Express, 2012, 20: 12035. doi: 10.1364/OE.20.012035

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Van Laere F, Roelkens G, Ayre M. Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides[J]. J Lightwave Technol, 2007, 25: 151. doi: 10.1109/JLT.2006.888164

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Roelkens G, Van Thourhout D, Baets R. High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay[J]. Opt Express, 2006, 14: 11622. doi: 10.1364/OE.14.011622

[10]

Vermeulen D, Selvaraja S, Verheyen P. High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator platform[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 18: 18278.

[11]

Yang S, Zhang Y, Baehr-Jones T. High efficiency germanium-assisted grating coupler[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 22: 30607. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.030607

[12]

Ding Y, Ou H, Peucheret C. Fully-etched apodized fiber-tochip grating coupler on the SOI platform with-0.78 dB coupling efficiency using photonic crystals and bonded Al mirror[J]. European Conference on Optical Communications, 2014: P.2.4.

[13]

Ding Y, Peucheret C, Ou H. Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with 0.58 dB coupling efficiency[J]. Opt Lett, 2014, 39: 5348. doi: 10.1364/OL.39.005348

[14]

Zaoui W S, Kunze A, Vogel W. Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 22: 1277. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.001277

[15]

Zaoui W S, Kunze A, Vogel W. CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror[J]. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2013, 25: 1395. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2266132

[16]

Benedikovic D, Cheben P, Schmid J H. High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure[J]. Laser Photonics Rev, 2014, 8: L93. doi: 10.1002/lpor.v8.6

[17]

He L, Liu Y, Galland C. A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography[J]. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2013, 25: 1358. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2265911

[18]

Jin Y J, Xue C Y, Chou X J. Highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and silicon-on-insulator waveguide[J]. International Conference on Electronics and Optoelectronics (ICEOE), 2011, 2: 382.

[1]

Sun C, Wade M T, Lee Y. Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light[J]. Nature, 2015, 528: 534. doi: 10.1038/nature16454

[2]

Michel J, Liu J, Kimerling L C. High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors[J]. Nat Photon, 2010, 4: 527. doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2010.157

[3]

Streshinsky M, Ding R, Liu Y. Low power 50 Gb/s silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator near 1300 nm[J]. Opt Express, 2013, 21: 30350. doi: 10.1364/OE.21.030350

[4]

Li G, Yao J, Thacker H. Ultralow-loss, high-density SOI optical waveguide routing for macro-chip interconnects[J]. Opt Express, 2012, 20: 12035. doi: 10.1364/OE.20.012035

[5]

Van Laere F, Roelkens G, Ayre M. Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides[J]. J Lightwave Technol, 2007, 25: 151. doi: 10.1109/JLT.2006.888164

[6]

Taillaert D, Van Laere F, Ayre M. Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides[J]. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2006, 45: 6071. doi: 10.1143/JJAP.45.6071

[7]

Roelkens G, Dumon P, Bogaerts W. Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248-nm-deep UV lithography[J]. IEEE PTL, 2005, 17: 2613. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2005.859132

[8]

Tsuchizawa T, Yamada K, Fukuda H. Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology[J]. IEEE JSTQE, 2005, 11: 232.

[9]

Roelkens G, Van Thourhout D, Baets R. High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay[J]. Opt Express, 2006, 14: 11622. doi: 10.1364/OE.14.011622

[10]

Vermeulen D, Selvaraja S, Verheyen P. High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS compatible silicon-on-insulator platform[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 18: 18278.

[11]

Yang S, Zhang Y, Baehr-Jones T. High efficiency germanium-assisted grating coupler[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 22: 30607. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.030607

[12]

Ding Y, Ou H, Peucheret C. Fully-etched apodized fiber-tochip grating coupler on the SOI platform with-0.78 dB coupling efficiency using photonic crystals and bonded Al mirror[J]. European Conference on Optical Communications, 2014: P.2.4.

[13]

Ding Y, Peucheret C, Ou H. Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with 0.58 dB coupling efficiency[J]. Opt Lett, 2014, 39: 5348. doi: 10.1364/OL.39.005348

[14]

Zaoui W S, Kunze A, Vogel W. Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits[J]. Opt Express, 2014, 22: 1277. doi: 10.1364/OE.22.001277

[15]

Zaoui W S, Kunze A, Vogel W. CMOS-compatible polarization splitting grating couplers with a backside metal mirror[J]. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2013, 25: 1395. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2266132

[16]

Benedikovic D, Cheben P, Schmid J H. High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure[J]. Laser Photonics Rev, 2014, 8: L93. doi: 10.1002/lpor.v8.6

[17]

He L, Liu Y, Galland C. A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography[J]. IEEE Photon Technol Lett, 2013, 25: 1358. doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2265911

[18]

Jin Y J, Xue C Y, Chou X J. Highly efficient grating coupler between optical fiber and silicon-on-insulator waveguide[J]. International Conference on Electronics and Optoelectronics (ICEOE), 2011, 2: 382.

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R R Liu, Y B Wang, D D Yin, H Ye, X H Yang, Q Han. A high-efficiency grating coupler between single-mode fiber and silicon-on-insulator waveguide[J]. J. Semicond., 2017, 38(5): 054007. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/5/054007.

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Manuscript received: 02 September 2016 Manuscript revised: 02 November 2016 Online: Published: 01 May 2017

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