J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 5 > Article Number: 052203

Mo5+ doping induced interface polarization for improving performance of planar perovskite solar cells

Yurong Jiang , , Yue Yang , Yiting Liu , Shan Yan , Yanxing Feng and Congxin Xia ,

+ Author Affiliations + Find other works by these authors

PDF

Turn off MathJax

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how interface-induced polarization affects the photovoltaic performance of hybrid perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices. The polarization of the hole transport layer (HTL) is regulated through incorporating metallic-like MoOx into PEDOT:PSS. The common MoO3 doped into PEDOT:PSS is used as a reference, and the device that used PEDOT:PSS-MoOx as the HTL shows an enhanced Jsc and FF compared to the reference device. The open-circuit photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy measurements indicate that trap-assisted recombination is effectively suppressed at the interface between the hybrid perovskite and the PEDOT:PSS-MoOx HTL, while severe trap assisted recombination takes place at the perovskite/PEDOT:PSS and perovskite/PEDOT:PSS-MoO3 interface. We attribute these experimental findings to the fact that the incorporation of metallic-like Mo5+ into PEDOT:PSS enhances the conductivity of HTL and the interface polarization between PEDTOT:PSS layer and perovskite, which helps to induce an interface polarization electric field to facilitate separation of charges and screen the recombination between the traps and free charges.

Key words: conductivityhole-transporting layerdielectric constantpolarization

Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how interface-induced polarization affects the photovoltaic performance of hybrid perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices. The polarization of the hole transport layer (HTL) is regulated through incorporating metallic-like MoOx into PEDOT:PSS. The common MoO3 doped into PEDOT:PSS is used as a reference, and the device that used PEDOT:PSS-MoOx as the HTL shows an enhanced Jsc and FF compared to the reference device. The open-circuit photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy measurements indicate that trap-assisted recombination is effectively suppressed at the interface between the hybrid perovskite and the PEDOT:PSS-MoOx HTL, while severe trap assisted recombination takes place at the perovskite/PEDOT:PSS and perovskite/PEDOT:PSS-MoO3 interface. We attribute these experimental findings to the fact that the incorporation of metallic-like Mo5+ into PEDOT:PSS enhances the conductivity of HTL and the interface polarization between PEDTOT:PSS layer and perovskite, which helps to induce an interface polarization electric field to facilitate separation of charges and screen the recombination between the traps and free charges.

Key words: conductivityhole-transporting layerdielectric constantpolarization



References:

[1]

De Wolf S, Holovsky J, Moon S J, et al. Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(6), 1035

[2]

Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron-and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342(6156), 344

[3]

Yoon H, Kang S M, Lee J K, et al. Hysteresis-free low-temperature-processed planar perovskite solar cells with 19.1% efficiency. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9(7), 2262

[4]

Xing G, Mathews N, Lim S S, et al. Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing. Nat Mater, 2014, 13(5), 476

[5]

Heo J H, Im S H, Noh J H, et al. Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors. Nat Photonics, 2013, 7(6), 486

[6]

Bryant D, Greenwood P, Troughton J, et al. A transparent conductive adhesive laminate electrode for high-efficiency organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(44), 7499

[7]

Jiang Q, Zhang L, Wang H, et al. Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)2PbI3-based perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2016, 2(1), 1

[8]

Aeineh N, Barea E M, Behjat A, et al. Inorganic surface engineering to enhance perovskite solar cell efficiency. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017, 9(15), 13181

[9]

Gonzalez-Pedro V, Juarez-Perez E J, Arsyad W S, et al. General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett, 2014, 14(2), 888

[10]

Yang K, Fu J, Hu L, et al. Impact of ZnO photoluminescence on organic photovoltaic performance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10(46), 39962

[11]

NREL chart. http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart. jpg. 2016

[12]

Xie J, Yu X, Sun X, et al. Improved performance and air stability of planar perovskite solar cells via interfacial engineering using a fullerene amine interlayer. Nano Energy, 2016, 28, 330

[13]

Kim H, Lim K G, Lee T W. Planar heterojunction organometal halide perovskite solar cells: roles of interfacial layers. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9(1), 12

[14]

Wang Z K, Gong X, Li M, et al. Induced crystallization of perovskites by a perylene underlayer for high-performance solar cells. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(5), 5479

[15]

Liu X, Li B, Zhang N, et al. Multifunctional RbCl dopants for efficient inverted planar perovskite solar cell with ultra-high fill factor, negligible hysteresis and improved stability. Nano Energy, 2018, 53, 567

[16]

Hu L, Li M, Yang K, et al. PEDOT:PSS monolayers to enhance the hole extraction and stability of perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2018, 6(34), 16583

[17]

Qian M, Li M, Shi X B, et al. Planar perovskite solar cells with 15.75% power conversion efficiency by cathode and anode interfacial modification. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3(25), 13533

[18]

Zhao L, Luo D, Wu J, et al. High-performance inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on lead acetate precursor with efficiency exceeding 18%. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26(20), 3508

[19]

Juarez-Perez E J, Wuβler M, Fabregat-Santiago F, et al. Role of the selective contacts in the performance of lead halide perovskite solar cells. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(4), 680

[20]

Bergmann V W, Weber S A, Ramos F J, et al. Real-space observation of unbalanced charge distribution inside a perovskite-sensitized solar cell. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5001

[21]

Abrusci A, Stranks S D, Docampo P, et al. High-performance perovskite-polymer hybrid solar cells via electronic coupling with fullerene monolayers. Nano Lett, 2013, 13(7), 3124

[22]

Tress W, Marinova N, Moehl T, et al. Understanding the rate-dependent J–V hysteresis, slow time component, and aging in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: the role of a compensated electric field. Energy Environ Sci, 2015, 8(3), 995

[23]

Crispin X, Jakobsson F L, Crispin A, et al. The origin of the high conductivity of poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)− poly (styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT−PSS) plastic electrodes. Chem Mater, 2006, 18(18), 4354

[24]

Zheng X, Bai Y, Xiao S, et al. Strategies for improving efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. MRS Adv, 2017, 2, 3051

[25]

Huang X, Wang K, Yi C, et al. Efficient perovskite hybrid solar cells by highly electrical conductive PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6(3), 1501773

[26]

Anusca I, Balčiūnas S, Gemeiner P, et al. Dielectric response: answer to many questions in the methylammonium lead halide solar cell absorbers. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7, 1700600

[27]

Jiang Y, Li C, Liu H, et al. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT: PSS)–molybdenum oxide composite films as hole conductors for efficient planar perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2016, 4(25), 9958

[28]

Wang Z, Lou Y, Naka S, et al. Direct comparison of solution- and vacuum-processed small molecular organic light-emitting devices with a mixed single layer. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2011, 3(7), 2496

[29]

Schulz P, Tiepelt J O, Christians J A, et al. High-work-function molybdenum oxide hole extraction contacts in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8(46), 31491

[30]

Kim H S, Cook J B, Lin H, et al. Oxygen vacancies enhance pseudocapacitive charge storage properties of MoO3− x. Nat Mater, 2017, 16(4), 454

[31]

Lee M H, Chen L, Li N, et al. MoO3-induced oxidation doping of PEDOT: PSS for high performance full-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5(40), 10555

[32]

Nguyen W H, Bailie C D, Unger E L, et al. Enhancing the hole-conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD without oxygen or lithium salts by using spiro (TFSI)2 in perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2014, 136(31), 10996

[33]

Wang N, Zhao K, Ding T, et al. Improving interfacial charge recombination in planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaics with small molecule as electron transport layer. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7(18), 1700522

[34]

Li Z, Tinkham J, Schulz P, et al. Acid additives enhancing the conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD toward high-efficiency and hysteresis-less planar perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7(4), 1601451

[35]

Shao Y, Yuan Y, Huang J. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2016, 1(1), 1

[36]

Dualeh A, Moehl T, Tétreault N, et al. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of lead iodide perovskite-sensitized solid-state solar cells. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(1), 362

[37]

Pockett A, Eperon G E, Peltola T, et al. Characterization of planar lead halide perovskite solar cells by impedance spectroscopy, open-circuit photovoltage decay, and intensity-modulated photovoltage/photocurrent spectroscopy. J Phys Chem C, 2015, 119(7), 3456

[38]

Humada A M, Hojabri M, Mekhilef S, et al. Solar cell parameters extraction based on single and double-diode models: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 2016, 56, 494

[39]

Tan F, Qu S, Jiang Q, et al. Interpenetrated inorganic hybrids for efficiency enhancement of PbS quantum dot solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2014, 4, 1400512

[40]

Liu Z, Niu S, Wang N. Light illumination intensity dependence of photovoltaic parameter in polymer solar cells with ammonium heptamolybdate as hole extraction layer. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018, 509, 171

[41]

Baumann A, Tvingstedt K, Heiber M C, et al. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. Appl Mater, 2014, 2(8), 081501

[42]

Tan F, Tan H, Saidaminov M I, et al. In situ back-contact passivation improves photovoltage and fill factor in perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(14), 1807435

[43]

Shao Y, Xiao Z, Bi C, et al. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5784

[44]

Hu L, Sun K, Wang M, et al. Inverted planar perovskite solar cells with a high fill factor and negligible hysteresis by the dual effect of NaCl-doped PEDOT: PSS. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017, 9(50), 43902

[45]

Kuik M, Koster L J, Wetzelaer G A, et al. Trap-assisted recombination in disordered organic semiconductors. Phys Rev Lett, 2011, 107(25), 256805

[46]

Sapori D, Kepenekian M, Pedesseau L, et al. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites. Nanoscale, 2016, 8(12), 6369

[47]

Brenner T M, Egger D A, Kronik L, et al. Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties. Nat Rev Mater, 2016, 1(1), 1

[1]

De Wolf S, Holovsky J, Moon S J, et al. Organometallic halide perovskites: sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(6), 1035

[2]

Xing G, Mathews N, Sun S, et al. Long-range balanced electron-and hole-transport lengths in organic-inorganic CH3NH3PbI3. Science, 2013, 342(6156), 344

[3]

Yoon H, Kang S M, Lee J K, et al. Hysteresis-free low-temperature-processed planar perovskite solar cells with 19.1% efficiency. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9(7), 2262

[4]

Xing G, Mathews N, Lim S S, et al. Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing. Nat Mater, 2014, 13(5), 476

[5]

Heo J H, Im S H, Noh J H, et al. Efficient inorganic–organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells containing perovskite compound and polymeric hole conductors. Nat Photonics, 2013, 7(6), 486

[6]

Bryant D, Greenwood P, Troughton J, et al. A transparent conductive adhesive laminate electrode for high-efficiency organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(44), 7499

[7]

Jiang Q, Zhang L, Wang H, et al. Enhanced electron extraction using SnO2 for high-efficiency planar-structure HC(NH2)2PbI3-based perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2016, 2(1), 1

[8]

Aeineh N, Barea E M, Behjat A, et al. Inorganic surface engineering to enhance perovskite solar cell efficiency. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017, 9(15), 13181

[9]

Gonzalez-Pedro V, Juarez-Perez E J, Arsyad W S, et al. General working principles of CH3NH3PbX3 perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett, 2014, 14(2), 888

[10]

Yang K, Fu J, Hu L, et al. Impact of ZnO photoluminescence on organic photovoltaic performance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10(46), 39962

[11]

NREL chart. http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart. jpg. 2016

[12]

Xie J, Yu X, Sun X, et al. Improved performance and air stability of planar perovskite solar cells via interfacial engineering using a fullerene amine interlayer. Nano Energy, 2016, 28, 330

[13]

Kim H, Lim K G, Lee T W. Planar heterojunction organometal halide perovskite solar cells: roles of interfacial layers. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9(1), 12

[14]

Wang Z K, Gong X, Li M, et al. Induced crystallization of perovskites by a perylene underlayer for high-performance solar cells. ACS Nano, 2016, 10(5), 5479

[15]

Liu X, Li B, Zhang N, et al. Multifunctional RbCl dopants for efficient inverted planar perovskite solar cell with ultra-high fill factor, negligible hysteresis and improved stability. Nano Energy, 2018, 53, 567

[16]

Hu L, Li M, Yang K, et al. PEDOT:PSS monolayers to enhance the hole extraction and stability of perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2018, 6(34), 16583

[17]

Qian M, Li M, Shi X B, et al. Planar perovskite solar cells with 15.75% power conversion efficiency by cathode and anode interfacial modification. J Mater Chem A, 2015, 3(25), 13533

[18]

Zhao L, Luo D, Wu J, et al. High-performance inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on lead acetate precursor with efficiency exceeding 18%. Adv Funct Mater, 2016, 26(20), 3508

[19]

Juarez-Perez E J, Wuβler M, Fabregat-Santiago F, et al. Role of the selective contacts in the performance of lead halide perovskite solar cells. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(4), 680

[20]

Bergmann V W, Weber S A, Ramos F J, et al. Real-space observation of unbalanced charge distribution inside a perovskite-sensitized solar cell. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5001

[21]

Abrusci A, Stranks S D, Docampo P, et al. High-performance perovskite-polymer hybrid solar cells via electronic coupling with fullerene monolayers. Nano Lett, 2013, 13(7), 3124

[22]

Tress W, Marinova N, Moehl T, et al. Understanding the rate-dependent J–V hysteresis, slow time component, and aging in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells: the role of a compensated electric field. Energy Environ Sci, 2015, 8(3), 995

[23]

Crispin X, Jakobsson F L, Crispin A, et al. The origin of the high conductivity of poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)− poly (styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT−PSS) plastic electrodes. Chem Mater, 2006, 18(18), 4354

[24]

Zheng X, Bai Y, Xiao S, et al. Strategies for improving efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. MRS Adv, 2017, 2, 3051

[25]

Huang X, Wang K, Yi C, et al. Efficient perovskite hybrid solar cells by highly electrical conductive PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6(3), 1501773

[26]

Anusca I, Balčiūnas S, Gemeiner P, et al. Dielectric response: answer to many questions in the methylammonium lead halide solar cell absorbers. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7, 1700600

[27]

Jiang Y, Li C, Liu H, et al. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT: PSS)–molybdenum oxide composite films as hole conductors for efficient planar perovskite solar cells. J Mater Chem A, 2016, 4(25), 9958

[28]

Wang Z, Lou Y, Naka S, et al. Direct comparison of solution- and vacuum-processed small molecular organic light-emitting devices with a mixed single layer. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2011, 3(7), 2496

[29]

Schulz P, Tiepelt J O, Christians J A, et al. High-work-function molybdenum oxide hole extraction contacts in hybrid organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016, 8(46), 31491

[30]

Kim H S, Cook J B, Lin H, et al. Oxygen vacancies enhance pseudocapacitive charge storage properties of MoO3− x. Nat Mater, 2017, 16(4), 454

[31]

Lee M H, Chen L, Li N, et al. MoO3-induced oxidation doping of PEDOT: PSS for high performance full-solution-processed inverted quantum-dot light emitting diodes. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5(40), 10555

[32]

Nguyen W H, Bailie C D, Unger E L, et al. Enhancing the hole-conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD without oxygen or lithium salts by using spiro (TFSI)2 in perovskite and dye-sensitized solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2014, 136(31), 10996

[33]

Wang N, Zhao K, Ding T, et al. Improving interfacial charge recombination in planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaics with small molecule as electron transport layer. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7(18), 1700522

[34]

Li Z, Tinkham J, Schulz P, et al. Acid additives enhancing the conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD toward high-efficiency and hysteresis-less planar perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7(4), 1601451

[35]

Shao Y, Yuan Y, Huang J. Correlation of energy disorder and open-circuit voltage in hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2016, 1(1), 1

[36]

Dualeh A, Moehl T, Tétreault N, et al. Impedance spectroscopic analysis of lead iodide perovskite-sensitized solid-state solar cells. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(1), 362

[37]

Pockett A, Eperon G E, Peltola T, et al. Characterization of planar lead halide perovskite solar cells by impedance spectroscopy, open-circuit photovoltage decay, and intensity-modulated photovoltage/photocurrent spectroscopy. J Phys Chem C, 2015, 119(7), 3456

[38]

Humada A M, Hojabri M, Mekhilef S, et al. Solar cell parameters extraction based on single and double-diode models: A review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev, 2016, 56, 494

[39]

Tan F, Qu S, Jiang Q, et al. Interpenetrated inorganic hybrids for efficiency enhancement of PbS quantum dot solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2014, 4, 1400512

[40]

Liu Z, Niu S, Wang N. Light illumination intensity dependence of photovoltaic parameter in polymer solar cells with ammonium heptamolybdate as hole extraction layer. J Colloid Interface Sci, 2018, 509, 171

[41]

Baumann A, Tvingstedt K, Heiber M C, et al. Persistent photovoltage in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells. Appl Mater, 2014, 2(8), 081501

[42]

Tan F, Tan H, Saidaminov M I, et al. In situ back-contact passivation improves photovoltage and fill factor in perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(14), 1807435

[43]

Shao Y, Xiao Z, Bi C, et al. Origin and elimination of photocurrent hysteresis by fullerene passivation in CH3NH3PbI3 planar heterojunction solar cells. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5784

[44]

Hu L, Sun K, Wang M, et al. Inverted planar perovskite solar cells with a high fill factor and negligible hysteresis by the dual effect of NaCl-doped PEDOT: PSS. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2017, 9(50), 43902

[45]

Kuik M, Koster L J, Wetzelaer G A, et al. Trap-assisted recombination in disordered organic semiconductors. Phys Rev Lett, 2011, 107(25), 256805

[46]

Sapori D, Kepenekian M, Pedesseau L, et al. Quantum confinement and dielectric profiles of colloidal nanoplatelets of halide inorganic and hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites. Nanoscale, 2016, 8(12), 6369

[47]

Brenner T M, Egger D A, Kronik L, et al. Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites: low-cost semiconductors with intriguing charge-transport properties. Nat Rev Mater, 2016, 1(1), 1

19120027supp.pdf

Search

Advanced Search >>

GET CITATION

Y R Jiang, Y Yang, Y T Liu, S Yan, Y X Feng, C X Xia, Mo5+ doping induced interface polarization for improving performance of planar perovskite solar cells[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 052203. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/052203.

Export: BibTex EndNote

Article Metrics

Article views: 1442 Times PDF downloads: 31 Times Cited by: 0 Times

History

Manuscript received: 01 March 2020 Manuscript revised: 23 March 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 21 April 2020 Uncorrected proof: 07 May 2020 Published: 13 May 2020

Email This Article

User name:
Email:*请输入正确邮箱
Code:*验证码错误