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Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide

Yonghui Zhang and Fei Xing

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 Corresponding author: Yonghui Zhang, yhzhang@sdut.edu.cn; Fei Xing, xingfei@sdut.edu.cn

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Abstract: The anisotropic properties and applications of β-gallium oxide (β-Ga2O3) are comprehensively reviewed. All the anisotropic properties are essentially resulted from the anisotropic crystal structure. The process flow of how to exfoliate nanoflakes from bulk material is introduced. Anisotropic optical properties, including optical bandgap, Raman and photoluminescence characters are comprehensively reviewed. Three measurement configurations of angle-resolved polarized Raman spectra (ARPRS) are reviewed, with Raman intensity formulas calculated with Raman tensor elements. The method to obtain the Raman tensor elements of phonon modes through experimental fitting is also introduced. In addition, the anisotropy in electron mobility and affinity are discussed. The applications, especially polarization photodetectors, based on β-Ga2O3 were summarized comprehensively. Three kinds of polarization detection mechanisms based on material dichroism, 1D morphology and metal-grids are discussed in-depth. This review paper provides a framework for anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-Ga2O3, as well as the applications based on these characters, and is expected to lead to a wider discussion on this topic.

Key words: gallium oxideanisotropicdichroismpolarizationmonoclinic



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) Anisotropic cystal structure of β-Ga2O3. (a) Unit cell of β-Ga2O3. (b) 2 × 2 cells with GaO4 tetrahedral and GaO6 octahedral chains. (c) Process flow of mechanical exfoliation of β-Ga2O3 nanobelts. (d) AFM result of one typical β-Ga2O3 nanobelt. (e) Lattice frame of β-Ga2O3. (f) Stereographic projection, (g) projection plane, (h) electron diffraction pattern and (i) projection view of β-Ga2O3 along [44, 0, –5] direction. (j) Stereographic projection, (k) projection plane, (l) electron diffraction pattern and (m) projection view of β-Ga2O3 along [100] direction.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) Anisotropic optical bandgap of β-Ga2O3. (a) Band structure for β-Ga2O3 calculated using the primitive unit cell of base-centered monoclinic[32]. Copyright 2010 by AIP publishing. (b) Tauc plot of the absorption coefficient, showing the polarization-dependent onsets[33]. Copyright 2016 by IOP publishing. (c) Polarized transmittance spectra of a β-Ga2O3 (100) single crystal and (d) transmittance magnitude with respect to E//b as a function of in-plane polarization angle[35]. Copyright 2019 by American Chemical Society.

Fig. 3.  (Color online) Schematic diagrams of three typical polarization configurations for angle-resolved polarized Raman spectroscopy[25]. Copyright 2017 by IOP publishing. (a) The schematic diagram of type 1 configuration. Polar plots of the Raman intensity when the analyzer is set along (b) vertical and (c) horizontal directions. (d) The schematic diagram of type 2 configuration. Polar plots of the Raman intensity when the analyzer is set along (e) vertical and (f) horizontal directions. The schematic diagram of type 3 configuration. Polar plots of the Raman intensity when the analyzer is (h) vertical and (i) horizontal to the incident laser direction.

Fig. 4.  (Color online) ARPRS results and Raman tensor elements from literature[39]. (a) Raman scattering intensities (circles), model fits (solid lines) and modelled intensities from ab-intio-calculated tensor elements (dashed lines) of the phonon modes with Ag-symmetry of β-Ga2O3 for parallel (black) and cross polarization (red) in dependence on the direction of the (scattered) polarization ϕ. (b) Raman tensor elements of Ag modes. (c) Raman scattering intensities and (d) Raman tensor elements of Bg modes. Copyright 2016 by Nature Publishing Group.

Fig. 5.  (Color online) Anisotropic photoluminescence spectra[37]. (a) Unpolarized and (b) polarized photoluminescence spectra of β-Ga2O3. Gaussian spectral components of photoluminescence at (c) 0° and (d) 100° angle of polarizer. Copyright 2021 by Optica Publishing Group.

Fig. 6.  (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of the band structure of β-Ga2O3[31]. Copyright 1997 by AIP publishing. (b) The Brillouin zone of the crystal[45]. Copyright 2016 by AIP publishing.

Fig. 7.  (Color online) (a) Configuration and (b) the photoresponsivity spectra of the narrow-band polarization detector[35]. Copyright 2019 by American Chemical Society. (c) IV characteristics and devie configuration, (d) 2D colour map of photocurrent, (e) normalized photoresponse speed and (f) absorption coefficient along [020] and [202] directions[50]. Copyright 2020 by Royal Society of Chemistry.

Fig. 8.  (a) Infinite dielectric cylindrical shell in uniform external electric field. Field intensities (|E|2) calculated from Maxwell's when external electric field is (b) perpendicular and (c) parallel to the dielectric object[51]. Copyright 2001 by AAAS.

Fig. 9.  (Color online) Metal-grid polarized photodetector[56]. (a) Schematics of the device structure. (b) SEM image of β-Ga2O3 device. (c) Enlarged view of the metal grid area. (d) Polarization angle response properties of the pristine and MG β-Ga2O3 devices. Copyright 2021 by Elsevier.

Table 1.   Anisotropic bandgaps from literatures.

Ref.MorphologySynthesis methodCharacterizationEg(a)
(eV)
Eg(b)
(eV)
Eg(c) (eV)
[34]Calculation2.3072.9752.478
[33]BulkEFGAbsorption4.574.724.54
[36]BulkEFGTransmittance4.584.734.48
[35]BulkEGGTransmittance4.764.53
[37]BulkFZTransmittance4.864.56
[31]BulkFZTransmittance4.794.52
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Table 2.   The comparison of electrical properties of β-Ga2O3 with AlN, Diamond, GaN and Si. Eg: banggap energy, Ebr: breakdown voltage, K: thermal conductivity, Y: Young's modulus.

Parameter
Eg (eV)Ebr (MV/cm)Velocity (107 cm/s)K (W/(cm·K))Y (GPa)
AlN6.2172.22.9310
Diamond5.5102.7101100
β-Ga2O34.982.40.27230
GaN3.43.32.52.1336
Si1.120.511.56130
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Table 3.   Benchmark of polarization detection reports. (*) represents that the values are calculated by the authors using σ = (IpeakIvalley)/(Ipeak + Ivalley) according to the data in these references, since they are not directly mentioned. (#) represents that the values are recalculated by the authors using σ = (IpeakIvalley)/(Ipeak + Ivalley) in order to reach a unified standard, as they were reported as dichroic ratio using Ipeak / Ivalley.

MaterialCrystal systemAnisotropic planeOptical
bandgap (eV)
Detection wavelengthMaterial morphologyAnisotropic mechanismAnisotropy ratioRef.
β-Ga2O3Monoclinic(−101)4.8UVC3D NanobeltDich. & Morp. & MG0.96(#)[56]
β-Ga2O3Monoclinic(−101)4.8UVC3D NanobeltDichroism0.96(#)[50]
β-Ga2O3Monoclinic(100)4.53-4.76UVC3D BulkDichroism0.53(*)[35]
β-GaxIny03Monoclinic(010)4.4−4.7UVC3D BulkDichroism[57]
GeS2Monoclinic(001)3.71UVA2D flakeDichroism0.36(#)[58]
SnO2Tetragonal(010)3.6UVA3D MicrowireDichroism0.39(#)[59]
MZO/ZnO-MQWHexagonal(11−20)3.17−3.57UVA3D MQWDichroism0.71(#)[60]
ZnOHexagonal(0001)3.37UVA3D Thin filmMG[56]
ZnOHexagonal3.37UVA3D NanowireMorphology0.19(*)[61]
GaNHexagonal(11−20)3.4UVA3D Thin filmDichroism0.76(#)[62]
GaNHexagonal3.4UVA-UVC3D NanowireMorphology0.16[63]
GeSe2Monoclinic(001)2.74VIS2D flakeDichroism0.55(#)[64]
GeSe2Monoclinic(001)2.96VIS2D flakeDichroism0.38(#)[65]
CsPbI3Orthorhombic(100)2.79VIS3D NanowireDich. & Morp.0.46(#)[66]
CdSeCubic & hexagonal1.79VIS3D NanowireMorphology0.13(#)[67]
ZrS3Monoclinic(001)1.79VIS2D nanoribbonDichroism0.27(#)[68]
ReS2/ReSe2Triclinic(001)1.6/1.3VIS2D heterojunctionDichroism0.47(*)[69]
CH3NH3PbI3Tetragonal(001)1.58VIS3D NanowireMorphology0.13(#)[70]
ReS2Triclinic(001)1.5VIS2D flakeDichroism0.47(*)[71]
InpCubic1.35Visible3D NanowireMorphology0.96[51]
TiS3Monoclinic(001)1.13VIS-NIR2D nanoribbonDichroism0.6(#)[72]
GeAs2Orthorhombic(001)1VIS2D flakeDichroism0.33(*)[73]
TlSeTetragonal(110)0.73VIS2D flakeDichroism0.45(#)[74]
BPOrthorhombic(001)0.3VIS-NIR2D flakeDichroism0.82(*)[75]
BPOrthorhombic(001)0.3VIS-MIR2D flakeDichroism0.63(*)[76]
DownLoad: CSV
[1]
Liang H L, Han Z Y, Mei Z X. Recent progress of deep ultraviolet photodetectors using amorphous gallium oxide thin films. Phys Status Solidi A, 2021, 218, 2000339 doi: 10.1002/pssa.202000339
[2]
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    Received: 22 November 2022 Revised: 27 December 2022 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 February 2023Uncorrected proof: 20 February 2023Corrected proof: 12 June 2023Published: 10 July 2023

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      Yonghui Zhang, Fei Xing. Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2023, 44(7): 071801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/7/071801 Y H Zhang, F Xing. Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide[J]. J. Semicond, 2023, 44(7): 071801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/7/071801Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Yonghui Zhang, Fei Xing. Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2023, 44(7): 071801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/7/071801

      Y H Zhang, F Xing. Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide[J]. J. Semicond, 2023, 44(7): 071801. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/7/071801
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      Anisotropic optical and electric properties of β-gallium oxide

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/7/071801
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      • Yonghui Zhang:obtained his PhD degree in condensed matter physics from the Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2018. His research interests include flexible transparent electronic, oxide semiconductors and high-voltage devices. Currently, he works in the School of Physics and Optoelectronics Engineering in Shandong University of Technology
      • Fei Xing:got his PhD degree from Nankai University in optics in 2014. His research interests are the optical properties of graphene-based total internal reflection devices. Now, he works in the School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering in Shandong University of Technology, mainly engaged in the application of low-dimensional semiconductor materials and optical devices
      • Corresponding author: yhzhang@sdut.edu.cnxingfei@sdut.edu.cn
      • Received Date: 2022-11-22
      • Revised Date: 2022-12-27
      • Available Online: 2023-02-18

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