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Hot electron effects on the operation of potential well barrier diodes

M. Akura 1, , , G. Dunn 1, 2, and M. Missous 3,

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Abstract: A study has just been carried out on hot electron effects in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As potential well barrier (PWB) diodes using both Monte Carlo (MC) and drift-diffusion (DD) models of charge transport. We show the operation and behaviour of the diode in terms of electric field, mean electron velocity and potential, mean energy of electrons and Γ-valley population. The MC model predicts lower currents flowing through the diode due to back scattering at anode (collector) and carrier heating at higher bias. At a bias of 1.0 V, the current density obtained from experimental result, MC and DD simulation models are 1.35, 1.12 and 1.77 μA/μm3 respectively. The reduction in current over conventional model, is compensated to a certain extent because less charge settles in the potential well and so the barrier is slightly reduced. The DD model results in higher currents under the same bias and conditions. However, at very low bias specifically, up to 0.3 V without any carrier heating effects, the DD and MC models look pretty similar as experimental results. The significant differences observed in the I–V characteristics of the DD and MC models at higher biases confirm the importance of energy transport when considering these devices.

Key words: Monte Carlo modelback scatteringcarrier heatingelectron energynon-stationary fields

Abstract: A study has just been carried out on hot electron effects in GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As potential well barrier (PWB) diodes using both Monte Carlo (MC) and drift-diffusion (DD) models of charge transport. We show the operation and behaviour of the diode in terms of electric field, mean electron velocity and potential, mean energy of electrons and Γ-valley population. The MC model predicts lower currents flowing through the diode due to back scattering at anode (collector) and carrier heating at higher bias. At a bias of 1.0 V, the current density obtained from experimental result, MC and DD simulation models are 1.35, 1.12 and 1.77 μA/μm3 respectively. The reduction in current over conventional model, is compensated to a certain extent because less charge settles in the potential well and so the barrier is slightly reduced. The DD model results in higher currents under the same bias and conditions. However, at very low bias specifically, up to 0.3 V without any carrier heating effects, the DD and MC models look pretty similar as experimental results. The significant differences observed in the I–V characteristics of the DD and MC models at higher biases confirm the importance of energy transport when considering these devices.

Key words: Monte Carlo modelback scatteringcarrier heatingelectron energynon-stationary fields



References:

[1]

Akura M, Dunn G, Sexton J, et al. Potential well barrier diodes for submillimeter wave and high frequency applications. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2017, 38, 438

[2]

Malik R J, Aucoin T R, Ross R L, et al. Planar-doped barriers in GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron Lett, 1980, 16, 836

[3]

Dixon S, Malik R. Subharmonic planar doped barrier mixer conversion loss characteristics. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 1983, 31, 155

[4]

Luryi S. High-speed electronics. New Jersey: Wiley, 1990

[5]

Akura M, Dunn G, Missous M. A hybrid planar-doped potential-well barrier diode for detector applications. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2017, 64, 4031

[6]

Kollberg E, Rydberg L. Quantum barrier varactor diodes for high efficiency millimetre-wave multipliers. Electron Lett, 1989, 25, 1696

[7]

Cook R K. Computer simulation of carrier transport in planar doped barrier diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1983, 42, 439

[8]

Couch N R, Kearney M J. Hot electron properties of GaAs planar doped barrier diodes. J Appl Phys, 1989, 66, 5083

[9]

Wang T, Hess K, Lafrate G J. Time-dependent ensemble Monte Carlo simulation for planar doped GaAs structures. J Appl Phys, 1985, 58, 857

[10]

Akura M, Dunn G, Sexton J, et al. GaAs/AlGaAs potential well barrier diodes: Novel diode for detector and mixer applications. Phys Status Solidi A, 2017, 214, 17002901

[11]

Akura M, Dunn G. Investigating the effect of temperature on barrier height of PWB diodes. Electron Lett, 2017, 54, 42

[12]

Akura M, Dunn G, Missous M. Investigating the role of band offset on the property and operation of the potential well barrier diodes. Phys Status Solidi B, 2019, 256, 1800284

[13]

Van Tuyen V, Szentpa'li B. Tunneling in planar-doped barrier diodes. J Appl Phys, 1990, 68, 2824

[14]

Jiang W N, Mishra U K. Current flow mechanisms in GaAs planar-doped-barrier diodes with high built-in fields. J Appl Phys, 1993, 74, 5569

[15]

Liberis J, Matulionis A, Sakalas P, et al. Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations. World Singapore: Scientific, 1997, 67

[16]

Li C, Khalid A, Piligrim N, et al. Novel planar Gunn diode operating in fundamental mode up to 158 GHz. J Phys: Conf Ser, 2009, 193, 0120291

[17]

Teoh T, Dunn G, Priestley N, et al. Monte Carlo modelling of multiple-transit-region Gunn diodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2002, 17, 1090

[18]

Pilgrim N, Macpherson R, Khalid A, et al. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2009, 24, 105010

[19]

Jacoboni J C, Reggiani L. The Monte Carlo method for the solution of charge transport in semiconductors with applications to covalent materials. Rev Mod Phys, 1983, 55, 645

[20]

Fawcett W, Boardman A D, Swain S. Monte Carlo determination of electron transport properties in gallium arsenide. J Phys Chem Solids, 1970, 31, 1963

[21]

Hockney R W, Eastwood J W. Computer simulation using particles. Bristol and Philadelphia: CRC Press, 1988, 374

[22]

Tomizawa K. Numerical simulation of submicron semiconductor devices. London: Artech House, 1993, 115

[23]

Jacoboni C, Lugli P. The Monte Carlo method for semiconductor device simulation. 1st ed. Spring- Verlag/Wien, 1989, 219

[24]

Snowden C M. Semiconductor device modelling. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd, 1988, 5, 175

[25]

Sze S M. Physics of semiconductor devices. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981, 44

[26]

Grasser T, Tang T, Kosina H, et al. A review of hydrodynamic and energy transport models for semiconductor device simulation. Proc IEEE, 2003, 91, 251

[27]

Frey J. Where do hot electrons come from. IEEE Circuits Devices Mag, 1991, 7, 31

[28]

Rode D L. Semiconductors and semimetals. New York: Academic, 1975, 10, 1

[1]

Akura M, Dunn G, Sexton J, et al. Potential well barrier diodes for submillimeter wave and high frequency applications. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2017, 38, 438

[2]

Malik R J, Aucoin T R, Ross R L, et al. Planar-doped barriers in GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron Lett, 1980, 16, 836

[3]

Dixon S, Malik R. Subharmonic planar doped barrier mixer conversion loss characteristics. IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech, 1983, 31, 155

[4]

Luryi S. High-speed electronics. New Jersey: Wiley, 1990

[5]

Akura M, Dunn G, Missous M. A hybrid planar-doped potential-well barrier diode for detector applications. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2017, 64, 4031

[6]

Kollberg E, Rydberg L. Quantum barrier varactor diodes for high efficiency millimetre-wave multipliers. Electron Lett, 1989, 25, 1696

[7]

Cook R K. Computer simulation of carrier transport in planar doped barrier diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 1983, 42, 439

[8]

Couch N R, Kearney M J. Hot electron properties of GaAs planar doped barrier diodes. J Appl Phys, 1989, 66, 5083

[9]

Wang T, Hess K, Lafrate G J. Time-dependent ensemble Monte Carlo simulation for planar doped GaAs structures. J Appl Phys, 1985, 58, 857

[10]

Akura M, Dunn G, Sexton J, et al. GaAs/AlGaAs potential well barrier diodes: Novel diode for detector and mixer applications. Phys Status Solidi A, 2017, 214, 17002901

[11]

Akura M, Dunn G. Investigating the effect of temperature on barrier height of PWB diodes. Electron Lett, 2017, 54, 42

[12]

Akura M, Dunn G, Missous M. Investigating the role of band offset on the property and operation of the potential well barrier diodes. Phys Status Solidi B, 2019, 256, 1800284

[13]

Van Tuyen V, Szentpa'li B. Tunneling in planar-doped barrier diodes. J Appl Phys, 1990, 68, 2824

[14]

Jiang W N, Mishra U K. Current flow mechanisms in GaAs planar-doped-barrier diodes with high built-in fields. J Appl Phys, 1993, 74, 5569

[15]

Liberis J, Matulionis A, Sakalas P, et al. Noise in physical systems and 1/f fluctuations. World Singapore: Scientific, 1997, 67

[16]

Li C, Khalid A, Piligrim N, et al. Novel planar Gunn diode operating in fundamental mode up to 158 GHz. J Phys: Conf Ser, 2009, 193, 0120291

[17]

Teoh T, Dunn G, Priestley N, et al. Monte Carlo modelling of multiple-transit-region Gunn diodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2002, 17, 1090

[18]

Pilgrim N, Macpherson R, Khalid A, et al. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes. Semicond Sci Technol, 2009, 24, 105010

[19]

Jacoboni J C, Reggiani L. The Monte Carlo method for the solution of charge transport in semiconductors with applications to covalent materials. Rev Mod Phys, 1983, 55, 645

[20]

Fawcett W, Boardman A D, Swain S. Monte Carlo determination of electron transport properties in gallium arsenide. J Phys Chem Solids, 1970, 31, 1963

[21]

Hockney R W, Eastwood J W. Computer simulation using particles. Bristol and Philadelphia: CRC Press, 1988, 374

[22]

Tomizawa K. Numerical simulation of submicron semiconductor devices. London: Artech House, 1993, 115

[23]

Jacoboni C, Lugli P. The Monte Carlo method for semiconductor device simulation. 1st ed. Spring- Verlag/Wien, 1989, 219

[24]

Snowden C M. Semiconductor device modelling. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd, 1988, 5, 175

[25]

Sze S M. Physics of semiconductor devices. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981, 44

[26]

Grasser T, Tang T, Kosina H, et al. A review of hydrodynamic and energy transport models for semiconductor device simulation. Proc IEEE, 2003, 91, 251

[27]

Frey J. Where do hot electrons come from. IEEE Circuits Devices Mag, 1991, 7, 31

[28]

Rode D L. Semiconductors and semimetals. New York: Academic, 1975, 10, 1

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History

Manuscript received: 19 November 2018 Manuscript revised: 29 April 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 May 2019 Uncorrected proof: 22 May 2019

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