J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 5 > Article Number: 052205

Giant efficiency and color purity enhancement in multicolor inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes via heating-assisted vacuum deposition

Boning Han 1, 2, , Qingsong Shan 1, 2, , Fengjuan Zhang 1, 2, , Jizhong Song 1, 2, 3, , and Haibo Zeng 1, 2, ,

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Abstract: Inorganic perovskites (CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl)) have broad prospection in the field of high-definition displaying due to its excellent optoelectronic characteristics. The vacuum deposition process possesses advantages and competitiveness in the industrialized production. However, the performance of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on vacuum-deposited is incredibly low. Herein, we proposed a heating-assisted vacuum deposition (HAVD) method to construct inorganic perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) with enhanced performance. The roughness and crystallinity of perovskite film were improved by regulating the heating treatment of substrates. And the perovskite film exhibited largely rise in luminescence, with decreasing defect density. Consequently, with the optimized temperature, the green PeLEDs exhibited 100-fold improvement of external quantum efficiency (EQE) with the luminance of up to 11 941 cd/m2, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra was decreased from 25 to 17 nm. At the same time, the red and blue PeLEDs also exhibited obvious enhancement in EQE and luminance by HAVD method, and both the FWHM of EL spectra dropped below 20 nm, exhibiting excellent high color purity. HAVD strategy has a huge potential to be a new commonly used method for low-cost fabrication of displays and lighting.

Key words: all-inorganic perovskiteslight-emitting diodesheating assisted vacuum depositionCsPbBr3color purity

Abstract: Inorganic perovskites (CsPbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl)) have broad prospection in the field of high-definition displaying due to its excellent optoelectronic characteristics. The vacuum deposition process possesses advantages and competitiveness in the industrialized production. However, the performance of light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on vacuum-deposited is incredibly low. Herein, we proposed a heating-assisted vacuum deposition (HAVD) method to construct inorganic perovskite LEDs (PeLEDs) with enhanced performance. The roughness and crystallinity of perovskite film were improved by regulating the heating treatment of substrates. And the perovskite film exhibited largely rise in luminescence, with decreasing defect density. Consequently, with the optimized temperature, the green PeLEDs exhibited 100-fold improvement of external quantum efficiency (EQE) with the luminance of up to 11 941 cd/m2, and the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the electroluminescence (EL) spectra was decreased from 25 to 17 nm. At the same time, the red and blue PeLEDs also exhibited obvious enhancement in EQE and luminance by HAVD method, and both the FWHM of EL spectra dropped below 20 nm, exhibiting excellent high color purity. HAVD strategy has a huge potential to be a new commonly used method for low-cost fabrication of displays and lighting.

Key words: all-inorganic perovskiteslight-emitting diodesheating assisted vacuum depositionCsPbBr3color purity



References:

[1]

Protesescu L, Yakunin S, Bodnarchuk M I, et al. Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3), X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color Gamut. Nano Lett, 2015, 15(6), 3692

[2]

Li J, Xu L, Wang T, et al. 50-fold EQE improvement up to 6.27% of solution-processed all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via surface ligand density control. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(5), 1603885

[3]

Quan L N, Quintero R, Voznyy O, et al. Highly emissive green perovskite nanocrystals in a solid state crystalline matrix. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(21), 1605945

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Song J, Li J, Xu L, et al. Room-temperature triple-ligand surface engineering synergistically boosts ink stability, recombination dynamics, and charge injection toward EQE-11.6% perovskite QLEDs. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(30), 1800764

[5]

Han B, Cai B, Shan Q, et al. Stable, efficient red perovskite light-emitting diodes by (α, δ)-CsPbI3 phase engineering. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(47), 1804285

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Song J, Fang T, Li J, et al. Organic-inorganic hybrid passivation enables perovskite QLEDs with an EQE of 16.48. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(50), 1805409

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Yang D, Cao M, Zhong Q, et al. All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: synthesis, surface engineering and applications. J Mater Chem C, 2019, 7(4), 757

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Zhang Q, Yin Y. All-inorganic metal halide perovskite nanocrystals: opportunities and challenges. ACS Cent Sci, 2018, 4(6), 668

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Zhang C, Li H, Huang A, et al. Rational design of a flexible CNTs@PDMS film patterned by bio-inspired templates as a strain sensor and supercapacitor. Small, 2019, 15(18), 1805493

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Ling Y, Tian Y, Wang X, et al. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of polymer-assisted all-inorganic perovskites for light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater, 2016, 28(40), 8983

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Song J, Li J, Li X, et al. Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3). Adv Mater, 2015, 27(44), 7162

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Cao Y, Wang N, Tian H, et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature, 2018, 562(7726), 249

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Lin K, Xing J, Quan L N, et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature, 2018, 562(7726), 245

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Zhao B, Bai S, Kim V, et al. High-efficiency perovskite-polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat Photonics, 2018, 12(12), 783

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Ling Y, Tan L, Wang X, et al. Composite perovskites of cesium lead bromide for optimized photoluminescence. J Phys Chem Lett, 2017, 8(14), 3266

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Yan K, Long M, Zhang T, et al. Hybrid halide perovskite solar cell precursors: colloidal chemistry and coordination engineering behind device processing for high efficiency. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137(13), 4460

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Shan Q, Li J, Song J, et al. All-inorganic quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on perovskite emitters with low turn-on voltage and high humidity stability. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5(18), 4565

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Shan Q, Song J, Zou Y, et al. High performance metal halide perovskite light-emitting diode: from material design to device optimization. Small, 2017, 13(45), 1701770

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Sharenko A, Toney M F. Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2016, 138(2), 463

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Yang X, Zhang X, Deng J, et al. Efficient green light-emitting diodes based on quasi-two-dimensional composition and phase engineered perovskite with surface passivation. Nat Commun, 2018, 9(1), 570

[21]

Erkilic U, Solis-Fernandez P, Ji H G, et al. Vapor phase selective growth of two-dimensional perovskite/WS2 heterostructures for optoelectronic applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019, 11(43), 40503

[22]

Lan S, Li W, Wang S, et al. Vapor-phase growth of CsPbBr3 microstructures for highly efficient pure green light emission. Adv Opt Mater, 2019, 7(2), 1801336

[23]

Burwig T, Franzel W, Pistor P, et al. Crystal phases and thermal stability of Co-evaporated CsPbX3 (X = I, Br) thin films. J Phys Chem Lett, 2018, 9(16), 4808

[24]

Tong G, Li H, Li D, et al. Dual-phase CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 perovskite thin films via vapor deposition for high-performance rigid and flexible photodetectors. Small, 2018, 14(7), 1702523

[25]

Hwang B, Lee J S. A strategy to design high-density nanoscale devices utilizing vapor deposition of metal halide perovskite materials. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(29), 1701048

[26]

Zhang H, Liu X, Dong J, et al. Centimeter-sized inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 crystals grown by an improved solution method. Cryst Growth Des, 2017, 17(12), 6426

[27]

Hsiao S Y, Lin H L, Lee W H. Efficient all-vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells by controlling reagent partial pressure in high vacuum. Adv Mater, 2016, 2(32), 7013

[28]

Hu X, Zhou H, Jiang Z. Direct vapor growth of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanoplate electroluminescence devices. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(10), 9869

[29]

Chen W, Zhang J, Xu G. A semitransparent inorganic perovskite film for overcoming ultraviolet light instability of organic solar cells and achieving 14.03% efficiency. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(21), 1800855

[30]

Lian X, Wang X, Ling Y, et al. Light emitting diodes based on inorganic composite halide perovskites. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 1807345

[31]

Shi Y, Wu W, Dong H, et al. A strategy for architecture design of crystalline perovskite light-emitting diodes with high performance. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(25), 1800251

[32]

Xu L, Yuan S, Zeng H, et al. A comprehensive review of doping in perovskite nanocrystals. Mater Today Nano, 2019, 6, 100036

[33]

Tan Y, Li R, Xu H, et al. Ultrastable and reversible fluorescent perovskite films used for flexible instantaneous display. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29(23), 1900730

[34]

Stranks S D, Snaith H J. Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 10(5), 391

[35]

Yang Z, Zhang S, Li L, et al. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules. J Materiom, 2017, 3(4), 231

[36]

Yuan F, Xi J, Dong H, et al. All-inorganic hetero-structured cesium tin halide perovskite light-emitting diodes with current density over 900 A/cm2 and its amplified spontaneous emission behaviors. Phy Status Solidi - Rapid Res Lett, 2018, 12(5), 1800090

[37]

Danekamp B, Droseros N, Palazon F, et al. Efficient photo- and electroluminescence by trap states passivation in vacuum-deposited hybrid perovskite thin films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10(42), 36187

[38]

Jia K, Song L, Hu Y, et al. Improved performance for thermally evaporated perovskite light-emitting devices via defect passivation and carrier regulation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2020, 12(13), 15928

[39]

Li M H, Yeh H H, Chiang Y H, et al. Highly efficient 2D/3D hybrid perovskite solar cells via low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process. Adv Mater, 2018, 1801401

[40]

Parrott E S, Patel J B, Haghighirad A A, et al. Growth modes and quantum confinement in ultrathin vapour-deposited MAPbI3 films. Nanoscale, 2019, 11(30), 14276

[41]

Kim H D, Ohkita H, Benten H, et al. Photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with different grain sizes. Adv Mater, 2016, 28(5), 917

[42]

Chu Z, Yang M, Schulz P, et al. Impact of grain boundaries on efficiency and stability of organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites. Nat Commun, 2017, 8(1), 2230

[43]

Zhang F, Song J, Han B, et al. High-efficiency pure-color inorganic halide perovskite emitters for ultrahigh-definition displays progress for backlighting displays and electrically driven devices. Small Methods, 2018, 2, 1700382

[44]

Dutta A, Behera R K, Dutta S K, et al. Annealing CsPbX3 (X = Cl and Br) perovskite nanocrystals at high reaction temperatures: phase change and its prevention. J Phys Chem Lett, 2018, 9(22), 6599

[45]

Liu F, Zhang Y, Ding C, et al. Highly luminescent phase-stable CsPbI3 perovskite quantum dots achieving near 100% absolute photoluminescence quantum yield. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(10), 10373

[46]

Zai H, Zhu C, Xie H, et al. Congeneric incorporation of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in a hybrid perovskite heterojunction for photovoltaic efficiency enhancement. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 3(1), 30

[47]

Tan H, Jain A, Voznyy O, et al. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation. Sci Rep, 2017, 355, 722

[48]

Yang B, Han K. Charge-carrier dynamics of lead-free halide perovskite nanocrystals. Acc Chem Res, 2019, 52(11), 3188

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Quilettes D W, Frohna K, Emin D, et al. Charge-carrier recombination in halide perovskites. Chem Rev, 2019, 119(20), 1100

[50]

Wehrenfennig C, Liu M, Snaith H J, et al. Charge-carrier dynamics in vapour-deposited films of the organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3− xCl x. Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7(7), 2269

[51]

Chirvony V S, Sekerbayev K S, Pérez-del-Rey D, et al. Short photoluminescence lifetimes in vacuum-deposited CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films as a result of fast diffusion of photogenerated charge carriers. J Phys Chem Lett, 2019, 10(17), 5167

[52]

Xie J, Yu X, Sun X, et al. Improved performance and air stability of planar perovskite solar cells via interfacial engineering using a fullerene amine interlayer. Nano Energy, 2016, 28, 330

[53]

Shi D, Adinolfi V, Comin R, et al. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals. Sci Rep, 2015, 30(347), 6221

[54]

Dai X, Zhang Z, Jin Y, et al. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots. Nature, 2014, 515(7525), 96

[55]

Fang T, Zhang F, Yuan S, et al. Recent advances and prospects toward blue perovskite materials and light-emitting diodes. InfoMat, 2019, 1(2), 211

[56]

Lin C H, Kang C Y, Verma A, et al. Ultrawide color gamut perovskite and CdSe/ZnS quantum-dots-based white light-emitting diode with high luminous efficiency. Nanomaterials, 2019, 9(9), 1314

[1]

Protesescu L, Yakunin S, Bodnarchuk M I, et al. Nanocrystals of cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3), X = Cl, Br, and I): novel optoelectronic materials showing bright emission with wide color Gamut. Nano Lett, 2015, 15(6), 3692

[2]

Li J, Xu L, Wang T, et al. 50-fold EQE improvement up to 6.27% of solution-processed all-inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 QLEDs via surface ligand density control. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(5), 1603885

[3]

Quan L N, Quintero R, Voznyy O, et al. Highly emissive green perovskite nanocrystals in a solid state crystalline matrix. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(21), 1605945

[4]

Song J, Li J, Xu L, et al. Room-temperature triple-ligand surface engineering synergistically boosts ink stability, recombination dynamics, and charge injection toward EQE-11.6% perovskite QLEDs. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(30), 1800764

[5]

Han B, Cai B, Shan Q, et al. Stable, efficient red perovskite light-emitting diodes by (α, δ)-CsPbI3 phase engineering. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(47), 1804285

[6]

Song J, Fang T, Li J, et al. Organic-inorganic hybrid passivation enables perovskite QLEDs with an EQE of 16.48. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(50), 1805409

[7]

Yang D, Cao M, Zhong Q, et al. All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals: synthesis, surface engineering and applications. J Mater Chem C, 2019, 7(4), 757

[8]

Zhang Q, Yin Y. All-inorganic metal halide perovskite nanocrystals: opportunities and challenges. ACS Cent Sci, 2018, 4(6), 668

[9]

Zhang C, Li H, Huang A, et al. Rational design of a flexible CNTs@PDMS film patterned by bio-inspired templates as a strain sensor and supercapacitor. Small, 2019, 15(18), 1805493

[10]

Ling Y, Tian Y, Wang X, et al. Enhanced optical and electrical properties of polymer-assisted all-inorganic perovskites for light-emitting diodes. Adv Mater, 2016, 28(40), 8983

[11]

Song J, Li J, Li X, et al. Quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on inorganic perovskite cesium lead halides (CsPbX3). Adv Mater, 2015, 27(44), 7162

[12]

Cao Y, Wang N, Tian H, et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures. Nature, 2018, 562(7726), 249

[13]

Lin K, Xing J, Quan L N, et al. Perovskite light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency exceeding 20 per cent. Nature, 2018, 562(7726), 245

[14]

Zhao B, Bai S, Kim V, et al. High-efficiency perovskite-polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes. Nat Photonics, 2018, 12(12), 783

[15]

Ling Y, Tan L, Wang X, et al. Composite perovskites of cesium lead bromide for optimized photoluminescence. J Phys Chem Lett, 2017, 8(14), 3266

[16]

Yan K, Long M, Zhang T, et al. Hybrid halide perovskite solar cell precursors: colloidal chemistry and coordination engineering behind device processing for high efficiency. J Am Chem Soc, 2015, 137(13), 4460

[17]

Shan Q, Li J, Song J, et al. All-inorganic quantum-dot light-emitting diodes based on perovskite emitters with low turn-on voltage and high humidity stability. J Mater Chem C, 2017, 5(18), 4565

[18]

Shan Q, Song J, Zou Y, et al. High performance metal halide perovskite light-emitting diode: from material design to device optimization. Small, 2017, 13(45), 1701770

[19]

Sharenko A, Toney M F. Relationships between lead halide perovskite thin-film fabrication, morphology, and performance in solar cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2016, 138(2), 463

[20]

Yang X, Zhang X, Deng J, et al. Efficient green light-emitting diodes based on quasi-two-dimensional composition and phase engineered perovskite with surface passivation. Nat Commun, 2018, 9(1), 570

[21]

Erkilic U, Solis-Fernandez P, Ji H G, et al. Vapor phase selective growth of two-dimensional perovskite/WS2 heterostructures for optoelectronic applications. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2019, 11(43), 40503

[22]

Lan S, Li W, Wang S, et al. Vapor-phase growth of CsPbBr3 microstructures for highly efficient pure green light emission. Adv Opt Mater, 2019, 7(2), 1801336

[23]

Burwig T, Franzel W, Pistor P, et al. Crystal phases and thermal stability of Co-evaporated CsPbX3 (X = I, Br) thin films. J Phys Chem Lett, 2018, 9(16), 4808

[24]

Tong G, Li H, Li D, et al. Dual-phase CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 perovskite thin films via vapor deposition for high-performance rigid and flexible photodetectors. Small, 2018, 14(7), 1702523

[25]

Hwang B, Lee J S. A strategy to design high-density nanoscale devices utilizing vapor deposition of metal halide perovskite materials. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(29), 1701048

[26]

Zhang H, Liu X, Dong J, et al. Centimeter-sized inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 crystals grown by an improved solution method. Cryst Growth Des, 2017, 17(12), 6426

[27]

Hsiao S Y, Lin H L, Lee W H. Efficient all-vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells by controlling reagent partial pressure in high vacuum. Adv Mater, 2016, 2(32), 7013

[28]

Hu X, Zhou H, Jiang Z. Direct vapor growth of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanoplate electroluminescence devices. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(10), 9869

[29]

Chen W, Zhang J, Xu G. A semitransparent inorganic perovskite film for overcoming ultraviolet light instability of organic solar cells and achieving 14.03% efficiency. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(21), 1800855

[30]

Lian X, Wang X, Ling Y, et al. Light emitting diodes based on inorganic composite halide perovskites. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 1807345

[31]

Shi Y, Wu W, Dong H, et al. A strategy for architecture design of crystalline perovskite light-emitting diodes with high performance. Adv Mater, 2018, 30(25), 1800251

[32]

Xu L, Yuan S, Zeng H, et al. A comprehensive review of doping in perovskite nanocrystals. Mater Today Nano, 2019, 6, 100036

[33]

Tan Y, Li R, Xu H, et al. Ultrastable and reversible fluorescent perovskite films used for flexible instantaneous display. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29(23), 1900730

[34]

Stranks S D, Snaith H J. Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 10(5), 391

[35]

Yang Z, Zhang S, Li L, et al. Research progress on large-area perovskite thin films and solar modules. J Materiom, 2017, 3(4), 231

[36]

Yuan F, Xi J, Dong H, et al. All-inorganic hetero-structured cesium tin halide perovskite light-emitting diodes with current density over 900 A/cm2 and its amplified spontaneous emission behaviors. Phy Status Solidi - Rapid Res Lett, 2018, 12(5), 1800090

[37]

Danekamp B, Droseros N, Palazon F, et al. Efficient photo- and electroluminescence by trap states passivation in vacuum-deposited hybrid perovskite thin films. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018, 10(42), 36187

[38]

Jia K, Song L, Hu Y, et al. Improved performance for thermally evaporated perovskite light-emitting devices via defect passivation and carrier regulation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2020, 12(13), 15928

[39]

Li M H, Yeh H H, Chiang Y H, et al. Highly efficient 2D/3D hybrid perovskite solar cells via low-pressure vapor-assisted solution process. Adv Mater, 2018, 1801401

[40]

Parrott E S, Patel J B, Haghighirad A A, et al. Growth modes and quantum confinement in ultrathin vapour-deposited MAPbI3 films. Nanoscale, 2019, 11(30), 14276

[41]

Kim H D, Ohkita H, Benten H, et al. Photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with different grain sizes. Adv Mater, 2016, 28(5), 917

[42]

Chu Z, Yang M, Schulz P, et al. Impact of grain boundaries on efficiency and stability of organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites. Nat Commun, 2017, 8(1), 2230

[43]

Zhang F, Song J, Han B, et al. High-efficiency pure-color inorganic halide perovskite emitters for ultrahigh-definition displays progress for backlighting displays and electrically driven devices. Small Methods, 2018, 2, 1700382

[44]

Dutta A, Behera R K, Dutta S K, et al. Annealing CsPbX3 (X = Cl and Br) perovskite nanocrystals at high reaction temperatures: phase change and its prevention. J Phys Chem Lett, 2018, 9(22), 6599

[45]

Liu F, Zhang Y, Ding C, et al. Highly luminescent phase-stable CsPbI3 perovskite quantum dots achieving near 100% absolute photoluminescence quantum yield. ACS Nano, 2017, 11(10), 10373

[46]

Zai H, Zhu C, Xie H, et al. Congeneric incorporation of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in a hybrid perovskite heterojunction for photovoltaic efficiency enhancement. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 3(1), 30

[47]

Tan H, Jain A, Voznyy O, et al. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation. Sci Rep, 2017, 355, 722

[48]

Yang B, Han K. Charge-carrier dynamics of lead-free halide perovskite nanocrystals. Acc Chem Res, 2019, 52(11), 3188

[49]

Quilettes D W, Frohna K, Emin D, et al. Charge-carrier recombination in halide perovskites. Chem Rev, 2019, 119(20), 1100

[50]

Wehrenfennig C, Liu M, Snaith H J, et al. Charge-carrier dynamics in vapour-deposited films of the organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3− xCl x. Energy Environ Sci, 2014, 7(7), 2269

[51]

Chirvony V S, Sekerbayev K S, Pérez-del-Rey D, et al. Short photoluminescence lifetimes in vacuum-deposited CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films as a result of fast diffusion of photogenerated charge carriers. J Phys Chem Lett, 2019, 10(17), 5167

[52]

Xie J, Yu X, Sun X, et al. Improved performance and air stability of planar perovskite solar cells via interfacial engineering using a fullerene amine interlayer. Nano Energy, 2016, 28, 330

[53]

Shi D, Adinolfi V, Comin R, et al. Low trap-state density and long carrier diffusion in organolead trihalide perovskite single crystals. Sci Rep, 2015, 30(347), 6221

[54]

Dai X, Zhang Z, Jin Y, et al. Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots. Nature, 2014, 515(7525), 96

[55]

Fang T, Zhang F, Yuan S, et al. Recent advances and prospects toward blue perovskite materials and light-emitting diodes. InfoMat, 2019, 1(2), 211

[56]

Lin C H, Kang C Y, Verma A, et al. Ultrawide color gamut perovskite and CdSe/ZnS quantum-dots-based white light-emitting diode with high luminous efficiency. Nanomaterials, 2019, 9(9), 1314

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B N Han, Q S Shan, F J Zhang, J Z Song, H B Zeng, Giant efficiency and color purity enhancement in multicolor inorganic perovskite light-emitting diodes via heating-assisted vacuum deposition[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 052205. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/052205.

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Manuscript received: 31 March 2020 Manuscript revised: 23 April 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 30 April 2020 Uncorrected proof: 06 May 2020 Published: 13 May 2020

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