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The application of halide perovskites in memristors

Gang Cao1, 2, Chuantong Cheng1, , Hengjie Zhang1, Huan Zhang1, Run Chen1, Beiju Huang1, Xiaobing Yan2, , Weihua Pei1 and Hongda Chen1, 3

+ Author Affiliations

 Corresponding author: C T Cheng, chengchuantong@semi.ac.cn; X B Yan, yanxiaobing@ime.ac.cn

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Abstract: New neuromorphic architectures and memory technologies with low power consumption, scalability and high-speed are in the spotlight due to the von Neumann bottleneck and limitations of Moore's law. The memristor, a two-terminal synaptic device, shows powerful capabilities in neuromorphic computing and information storage applications. Active materials with high defect migration speed and low defect migration barrier are highly promising for high-performance memristors. Halide perovskite (HP) materials with point defects (such as gaps, vacancies, and inversions) have strong application potential in memristors. In this article, we review recent advances on HP memristors with exceptional performances. First, the working mechanisms of memristors are described. Then, the structures and properties of HPs are explained. Both electrical and photonic HP-based memristors are overviewed and discussed. Different fabrication methods of HP memristor devices and arrays are described and compared. Finally, the challenges in integrating HP memristors with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) are briefly discussed. This review can assist in developing HP memristors for the next-generation information technology.

Key words: halide perovskitesmemristorsfabrication methodsCMOS



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) (a) Four basic circuit elements: resistor, capacitor, inductor and memristor. Reprinted from Ref. [28]. (b) The variable resistance model of memristor proposed by Strukov et al. Reprinted from Ref. [29]. (c) Schematic diagram of a typical sandwich structure memristor of Au/MAPbI3−xClx/ITO. Reprinted from Ref. [14]. (d) Ta/Ta2O5:Ag/Ru high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image and typical abrupt I–V curve. Reprinted from Ref. [30]. (e) Schematic of vertical structure Au/MAPbI3/PEDOT:PSS/ITO and dark current of memristor. Reprinted from Ref. [32]. (f) Schematic diagram of synaptic working principle. Reprinted from Ref. [35]. (g) Diagram of atomic switches in ON and OFF states via ECM mechanism. Reprinted from Ref. [44]. (h) Schematic diagram of VCM-induced resistance switching behavior. Reprinted from Ref. [45]. (i) Schematic diagram of Schottky barrier for TiN/SiO2/Si structure. Reprinted from Ref. [53].

Fig. 2.  (Color online) (a) Atomic structure diagram of perovskite. Reprinted from Ref. [60]. (b) Structure of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Reprinted from Ref. [64]. (c) Au/CH3NH3PbI3–xClx/FTO device structure chemical diagram and voltage application diagram. (d) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the surface morphology of the CH3NH3PbI3–xClx film. (e) Cross-sectional SEM image of Au/CH3NH3PbI3–xClx/FTO. Reprinted from Ref. [67].

Fig. 3.  (Color online) Properties of halide perovskites. (a) Tunable bandgap. Reprinted from Ref. [72]. (b) Variable structure. Reprinted from Ref. [76]. (c) High carrier mobility. Reprinted from Ref. [71]. (d) Good light absorption. Reprinted from Ref. [79]. (e) Ultra-high flexibility. Reprinted from Ref. [80].

Fig. 4.  (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of Ag/PMMA/MA3Sb2Br9/ITO device structure. (b) Crystal structure of MA3Sb2Br9. (c) Cross-sectional SEM image. (d) I–V characteristics of a memristor based on MA3Sb2Br9. (e) Durability. (With a write voltage of −0.5 V, a reset voltage of 1.2 V, and a read voltage of 0.01 V, the pulse width is 1 ms.) (f) Retention time. (Write voltage is −0.5 V, and read voltage is 0.01 V.) (g) Measure of the HRS and LRS data reliability of 30 units at 0.01 V. (h) X-ray diffraction pattern of the MA3Sb2Br9 layer deposited on ITO. (i) Absorption spectrum of MA3Sb2Br9 film. (j) Device resistance-switching at different compliance currents. (k) Sb 3d XPS spectra of MA3Sb2Br9 film on the ITO substrate. Reprinted from Ref. [86].

Fig. 5.  (Color online) STDP for OTP synaptic devices. (a) Schematic representation of biological synapses. (b, f) Asymmetric Hebbian rules. (c, g) Asymmetric anti-Hebbian rules. (d, h) Symmetrical Hebbian rules. (e, i) Symmetrical anti-Hebbian rules. Reprinted from Ref. [95].

Fig. 6.  (Color online) (a) I–t response of the device under ON/OFF switch lighting (at a read voltage of 10 mV). (b) I–t response of the device under ON/OFF switch lighting at reading voltages of 0.1, 1, or 10 mV, respectively. (c) A schematic diagram of a logical OR with two input sources and one output. (d) Schematic diagram of the light-induced structure of the device and the schematic of the logical OR gate. Reprinted from Ref. [103]. (e) A schematic diagram of a logical OR gate structure with two input signals and one output signal. (f) Logarithmic I–V curve of a two-layer device measured in the dark and under a wavelength of 442 nm (1.01 mW/cm2). (g) I–t curve of the device at 0 V. (h) Resistance-switching speed of the device at a light intensity of 1.01 mW/cm2. Reprinted from Ref. [104].

Fig. 7.  (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of PPF measurement. (b) PPF ratios measured at different illumination intensities (0 to 0.38 µW/cm2). Inset: PPF ratio and fit normalized using function. (c) Correlation between the decay time constant measured in the dark and light exposure and the number of stimulation pulses. (d) When the device is repeatedly stimulated with electrical pulses under dark (upper) and light (0.19 µW/cm2) (lower), the conductivity maintains the curve. (e) The conductance retention curve of the device in LTM mode in which light is applied and removed alternately (1.29 µW/cm2). (f) Evolution of device conductance of devices that have been programmed in the LTM scheme in the dark. Under dark and light conditions (1.29 µW/cm2), the device was stimulated with electrical pulses. Reprinted from Ref. [107]. (g) Schematic representation of biological synapses. The synaptic device is shown in the upper right corner. The illustration in the upper left corner is the crystal structure of 2D layered (C6H5CH2CH2NH3)2SnI4. (h) Photocurrents of (PEA)2SnI4 film (red line) and (PEA)2SnI4-based photoconductor at the same 5 µW/cm2 irradiation at 470, 590, and 660 nm, respectively (blue asterisk). (I) A cross-sectional view of an artificial synaptic device. The inset is an example of input light spikes and output PSC. (j) PSC changes (∆PSC) triggered by a spike pulse (wavelength = 470 nm, duration = 20 ms, power density = 11.6 µW/cm2) at a bias voltage (Vbias) of 2 V. (k, l) STP and LTP behaviors obtained by variable frequency light stimulation devices. Reprinted from Ref. [110].

Fig. 8.  (Color online) (a) Processing metal halide perovskites with semiconductor technologies. (b) Optical photographs of MAPbI3 and CsPbBr3 under parylene thin layers before and after water immersion. (c) 3D schematic of the memristor structure. (d) Optical micrograph of the fabricated CsPbBr3-based memristor; the scale bar is 10 μm. (e) I−V characteristics of the device. The inset shows the logarithmic scale of the I–V curve. Reprinted from Ref. [113].

Fig. 9.  (Color online) (a) Schematic diagram of preparing a perovskite microplate array on a substrate. (b–d) Optical images of growth after the substrate was seeded for 1 minute and 2 minutes. Reprinted from Ref. [118]. (e) Schematic outline of the preparation procedures. (f–i) PDMS-CHT restricts the growth of the CsPbCl3 solution. Bright-field and fluorescent microscope overlay images of exposure to UV light (360–380 nm) are shown. Reprinted from Ref. [119].

Fig. 10.  (Color online) Morphology of solution on (a) isotropic substrate and (b) anisotropic MicroCP substrate with –NH2. (c) High-speed camera observation and SEM images of the perovskite transformation process. Reprinted from Ref. [124].

Table 1.   A summary of the electrical performance of HP-based RS devices.

StructureOperation voltage (V)Ron/Roff ratioRetention (s)Endurance (cycles)Power consumption (mW)Ref.
Au/MAPbI3−xClx/FTO1.47/–1.41~ 104> 4 × 104> 50~ 70[14]
Ag/CH3NH3PbI3/Pt0.13/–0.15106N.AN.A< 0.1[87]
Pt/HC(NH2)2PbI3/AgN.AN.A12003 × 103N.A[88]
Ag/AIST/MAPbI3/FTO0.5/–0.520104> 200~ 2[89]
ITO/CH3NH3PbBr3/AuN.A> 103104103N.A[90]
Au/MAPbI3/Pt1.0/–1.0~ 104> 105> 500~ 0.05[91]
Ag/MAPbI3/Au0.32/–0.13107~ 104103~ 0.01[92]
V-doped SrZrO39/–13< 103N.AN.A~ 0.2[93]
Ag/CH3NH3PbClxI3–x/FTO1.5/–1.5~ 1034 × 104N.A< 1[94]
Au/MAPbI3/ITO0.7/–0.5~ 10~ 104> 400~ 0.6[12]
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    Received: 28 February 2020 Revised: 29 March 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 15 April 2020Uncorrected proof: 16 April 2020Published: 13 May 2020

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      Gang Cao, Chuantong Cheng, Hengjie Zhang, Huan Zhang, Run Chen, Beiju Huang, Xiaobing Yan, Weihua Pei, Hongda Chen. The application of halide perovskites in memristors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(5): 051205. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051205 G Cao, C T Cheng, H J Zhang, H Zhang, R Chen, B J Huang, X B Yan, W H Pei, H D Chen, The application of halide perovskites in memristors[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 051205. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051205.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Gang Cao, Chuantong Cheng, Hengjie Zhang, Huan Zhang, Run Chen, Beiju Huang, Xiaobing Yan, Weihua Pei, Hongda Chen. The application of halide perovskites in memristors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(5): 051205. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051205

      G Cao, C T Cheng, H J Zhang, H Zhang, R Chen, B J Huang, X B Yan, W H Pei, H D Chen, The application of halide perovskites in memristors[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 051205. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051205.
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