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Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors

Yanxin Wang1, Jiye Li1, Fayang Liu1, Dongxiang Luo2, Yunping Wang1, Shengdong Zhang1, 3 and Lei Lu1,

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 Corresponding author: Lei Lu, lulei@pku.edu.cn

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Abstract: As growing applications demand higher driving currents of oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs), severe instabilities and even hard breakdown under high-current stress (HCS) become critical challenges. In this work, the triggering voltage of HCS-induced self-heating (SH) degradation is defined in the output characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs, and used to quantitatively evaluate the thermal generation process of channel donor defects. The fluorinated a-IGZO (a-IGZO:F) was adopted to effectively retard the triggering of the self-heating (SH) effect, and was supposed to originate from the less population of initial deep-state defects and a slower rate of thermal defect transition in a-IGZO:F. The proposed scheme noticeably enhances the high-current applications of oxide TFTs.

Key words: amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)thin-film transistors (TFTs)current stressself-heating (SH)fluorination



[1]
Hsieh H H, Lu H H, Ting H C, et al. Development of IGZO TFTs and their applications to next-generation flat-panel displays. J Inf Disp, 2010, 11(4), 160 doi: 10.1080/15980316.2010.9665845
[2]
Nomura K, Takagi A, Kamiya T, et al. Amorphous oxide semiconductors for high-performance flexible thin-film transistors. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2006, 45, 4303 doi: 10.1143/JJAP.45.4303
[3]
Tang L F, Lu H, Ren F F, et al. Electrical instability of amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under ultraviolet illumination. Chin Phys Lett, 2016, 33, 038502 doi: 10.1088/0256-307X/33/3/038502
[4]
Chasin A, Franco J, Triantopoulos K, et al. Understanding and modelling the PBTI reliability of thin-film IGZO transistors. 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2022, 31 doi: 10.1109/IEDM19574.2021.9720666
[5]
Zheng Z K, Li S, Li Y Z, et al. P-6: Reduction of drain-current-drop phenomenon in BCE a-IGZO TFTs for 85-in. 8K 120Hz GOA LCD. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2021, 52, 1078 doi: 10.1002/sdtp.14879
[6]
Kim J, Miyokawa N, Ide K, et al. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor. AIP Adv, 2016, 6(1), 015106 doi: 10.1063/1.4939939
[7]
Choi J W, Song D H, Chun H I, et al. 30-5: Late-News Paper: Glass-based High brightness AMLED using Dual Gate Coplanar a-IGZO TFT. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2020, 51, 440 doi: 10.1002/sdtp.13899
[8]
Du M, Zhao J, Zhang D, et al. Roles of gate voltage and stress power in self-heating degradation of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68(4), 1644 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3055751
[9]
Chen H C, Chen J J, Tu Y F, et al. Abnormal hump effect induced by hydrogen diffusion during self-heating stress in top-gate amorphous InGaZnO TFTs. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2020, 67(7), 2807 doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.2994539
[10]
Yang H, Huang T Y, Zhou X L, et al. Self-heating stress-induced severe humps in transfer characteristics of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68, 6197 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3122792
[11]
Lee S W, Jeon P J, Choi K, et al. Analysis of self-heating effect on short channel amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2015, 36(5), 472 doi: 10.1109/LED.2015.2411742
[12]
Liu F Y, Zhou Y H, Yang H, et al. Roles of hot carriers in dynamic self-heating degradation of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2022, 43, 40 doi: 10.1109/LED.2021.3133011
[13]
Mativenga M, Hong S, Jang J. High current stress effects in amorphous-InGaZnO4 thin-film transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2), 023503 doi: 10.1063/1.4775694
[14]
Yeon H W, Lim S M, Jung J K, et al. Structural-relaxation-driven electron doping of amorphous oxide semiconductors by increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies in shallow-donor states. NPG Asia Mater, 2016, 8(3), e250 doi: 10.1038/am.2016.11
[15]
Chen H C, Chen G F, Chen P H, et al. A novel heat dissipation structure for inhibiting hydrogen diffusion in top-gate a-InGaZnO TFTs. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2019, 40(9), 1447 doi: 10.1109/LED.2019.2927422
[16]
Liao P Y, Khot K, Alajlouni S, et al. Alleviation of self-heating effect in top-gated ultrathin In2O3 FETs using a thermal adhesion layer. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2023, 70, 113 doi: 10.1109/TED.2022.3221358
[17]
Yang T J, Kim J H, Cho J R, et al. Physical model of a local threshold voltage shift in InGaZnO thin-film transistors under current stress for instability-aware circuit design. Curr Appl Phys, 2023, 46, 55 doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2022.11.011
[18]
Nomura K, Kamiya T, Kikuchi Y, et al. Comprehensive studies on the stabilities of a-In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistor by constant current stress. Thin Solid Films, 2010, 518(11), 3012 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.09.193
[19]
Oh C E, Kwon H I, Jeong H S, et al. Effects of oxygen content on output characteristics of IGZO TFTs under high current driving conditions. J Semicond Technol Sci, 2023, 23, 71 doi: 10.5573/JSTS.2023.23.1.71
[20]
Wang C, Peng C, Wen P, et al. Improvement of performance of back channel etching InGaZnO thin-film transistors by CF4 plasma treatment. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2023, 70, 1687 doi: 10.1109/TED.2023.3244903
[21]
Lu L, Xia Z H, Li J P, et al. A comparative study on fluorination and oxidation of indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 196 doi: 10.1109/LED.2017.2781700
[22]
Zhou Y H, Liu F Y, Yang H, et al. Competition between heating and cooling during dynamic self-heating degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. Solid State Electron, 2022, 195, 108393 doi: 10.1016/j.sse.2022.108393
[23]
Feng Z Q, Lu L, Wang S S, et al. Fluorination-enabled monolithic integration of enhancement- and depletion-mode indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 692 doi: 10.1109/LED.2018.2818949
[24]
Park Y C, Um J G, Mativenga M, et al. Thermal stability improvement of back channel etched a-IGZO TFTs by using fluorinated organic passivation. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol, 2018, 7(6), Q123 doi: 10.1149/2.0251806jss
[25]
Saha J K, Ali A, Bukke R N, et al. Performance improvement for spray-coated ZnO TFT by F doping with spray-coated Zr–Al–O gate insulator. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68(3), 1063 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3051918
[26]
Wang S S, Li J P, Shi R X, et al. Fluorinated indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor with reduced vulnerability to hydrogen-induced degradation. J Soc Inf Display, 2020, 28, 520 doi: 10.1002/jsid.914
[27]
Wang S S, Shi R X, Li J P, et al. Resilience of fluorinated indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor against hydrogen-induced degradation. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2020, 41, 729 doi: 10.1109/LED.2020.2983789
[28]
Yoshikawa T, Yagi T, Oka N, et al. Thermal conductivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films. Appl Phys Express, 2013, 6(2), 021101 doi: 10.7567/APEX.6.021101
Fig. 1.  (Color online) Schematic cross-section of the fabricated SATG a-IGZO TFTs.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) (a) Transfer curves measured at Vds = 0.1 V from original a-IGZO TFT and a-IGZO TFT experienced output curve sweeping to Stage- Ⅱ. (b) Output characteristic and output resistance curves of the a-IGZO TFT at Vgs = 20 V. Three stages are divided and labeled with Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ, respectively.

Fig. 3.  (Color online) The mechanism of SH-induced defect transition, illustrated in the density of states (DOS) in a-IGZO.

Fig. 4.  (Color online) Output characteristic and output resistance curves of a-IGZO:F TFT at Vgs = 20 V.

Fig. 5.  (Color online) The evolution of Id of a-IGZO and a-IGZO:F TFTs under SH stresses of the same initial power.

[1]
Hsieh H H, Lu H H, Ting H C, et al. Development of IGZO TFTs and their applications to next-generation flat-panel displays. J Inf Disp, 2010, 11(4), 160 doi: 10.1080/15980316.2010.9665845
[2]
Nomura K, Takagi A, Kamiya T, et al. Amorphous oxide semiconductors for high-performance flexible thin-film transistors. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2006, 45, 4303 doi: 10.1143/JJAP.45.4303
[3]
Tang L F, Lu H, Ren F F, et al. Electrical instability of amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under ultraviolet illumination. Chin Phys Lett, 2016, 33, 038502 doi: 10.1088/0256-307X/33/3/038502
[4]
Chasin A, Franco J, Triantopoulos K, et al. Understanding and modelling the PBTI reliability of thin-film IGZO transistors. 2021 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2022, 31 doi: 10.1109/IEDM19574.2021.9720666
[5]
Zheng Z K, Li S, Li Y Z, et al. P-6: Reduction of drain-current-drop phenomenon in BCE a-IGZO TFTs for 85-in. 8K 120Hz GOA LCD. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2021, 52, 1078 doi: 10.1002/sdtp.14879
[6]
Kim J, Miyokawa N, Ide K, et al. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor. AIP Adv, 2016, 6(1), 015106 doi: 10.1063/1.4939939
[7]
Choi J W, Song D H, Chun H I, et al. 30-5: Late-News Paper: Glass-based High brightness AMLED using Dual Gate Coplanar a-IGZO TFT. SID Symp Dig Tech Pap, 2020, 51, 440 doi: 10.1002/sdtp.13899
[8]
Du M, Zhao J, Zhang D, et al. Roles of gate voltage and stress power in self-heating degradation of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68(4), 1644 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3055751
[9]
Chen H C, Chen J J, Tu Y F, et al. Abnormal hump effect induced by hydrogen diffusion during self-heating stress in top-gate amorphous InGaZnO TFTs. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2020, 67(7), 2807 doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.2994539
[10]
Yang H, Huang T Y, Zhou X L, et al. Self-heating stress-induced severe humps in transfer characteristics of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68, 6197 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3122792
[11]
Lee S W, Jeon P J, Choi K, et al. Analysis of self-heating effect on short channel amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2015, 36(5), 472 doi: 10.1109/LED.2015.2411742
[12]
Liu F Y, Zhou Y H, Yang H, et al. Roles of hot carriers in dynamic self-heating degradation of a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2022, 43, 40 doi: 10.1109/LED.2021.3133011
[13]
Mativenga M, Hong S, Jang J. High current stress effects in amorphous-InGaZnO4 thin-film transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102(2), 023503 doi: 10.1063/1.4775694
[14]
Yeon H W, Lim S M, Jung J K, et al. Structural-relaxation-driven electron doping of amorphous oxide semiconductors by increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies in shallow-donor states. NPG Asia Mater, 2016, 8(3), e250 doi: 10.1038/am.2016.11
[15]
Chen H C, Chen G F, Chen P H, et al. A novel heat dissipation structure for inhibiting hydrogen diffusion in top-gate a-InGaZnO TFTs. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2019, 40(9), 1447 doi: 10.1109/LED.2019.2927422
[16]
Liao P Y, Khot K, Alajlouni S, et al. Alleviation of self-heating effect in top-gated ultrathin In2O3 FETs using a thermal adhesion layer. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2023, 70, 113 doi: 10.1109/TED.2022.3221358
[17]
Yang T J, Kim J H, Cho J R, et al. Physical model of a local threshold voltage shift in InGaZnO thin-film transistors under current stress for instability-aware circuit design. Curr Appl Phys, 2023, 46, 55 doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2022.11.011
[18]
Nomura K, Kamiya T, Kikuchi Y, et al. Comprehensive studies on the stabilities of a-In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistor by constant current stress. Thin Solid Films, 2010, 518(11), 3012 doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2009.09.193
[19]
Oh C E, Kwon H I, Jeong H S, et al. Effects of oxygen content on output characteristics of IGZO TFTs under high current driving conditions. J Semicond Technol Sci, 2023, 23, 71 doi: 10.5573/JSTS.2023.23.1.71
[20]
Wang C, Peng C, Wen P, et al. Improvement of performance of back channel etching InGaZnO thin-film transistors by CF4 plasma treatment. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2023, 70, 1687 doi: 10.1109/TED.2023.3244903
[21]
Lu L, Xia Z H, Li J P, et al. A comparative study on fluorination and oxidation of indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 196 doi: 10.1109/LED.2017.2781700
[22]
Zhou Y H, Liu F Y, Yang H, et al. Competition between heating and cooling during dynamic self-heating degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors. Solid State Electron, 2022, 195, 108393 doi: 10.1016/j.sse.2022.108393
[23]
Feng Z Q, Lu L, Wang S S, et al. Fluorination-enabled monolithic integration of enhancement- and depletion-mode indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFTs. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 692 doi: 10.1109/LED.2018.2818949
[24]
Park Y C, Um J G, Mativenga M, et al. Thermal stability improvement of back channel etched a-IGZO TFTs by using fluorinated organic passivation. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol, 2018, 7(6), Q123 doi: 10.1149/2.0251806jss
[25]
Saha J K, Ali A, Bukke R N, et al. Performance improvement for spray-coated ZnO TFT by F doping with spray-coated Zr–Al–O gate insulator. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2021, 68(3), 1063 doi: 10.1109/TED.2021.3051918
[26]
Wang S S, Li J P, Shi R X, et al. Fluorinated indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor with reduced vulnerability to hydrogen-induced degradation. J Soc Inf Display, 2020, 28, 520 doi: 10.1002/jsid.914
[27]
Wang S S, Shi R X, Li J P, et al. Resilience of fluorinated indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor against hydrogen-induced degradation. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2020, 41, 729 doi: 10.1109/LED.2020.2983789
[28]
Yoshikawa T, Yagi T, Oka N, et al. Thermal conductivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin films. Appl Phys Express, 2013, 6(2), 021101 doi: 10.7567/APEX.6.021101
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    Received: 15 May 2023 Revised: 06 July 2023 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 22 August 2023Corrected proof: 22 August 2023Uncorrected proof: 23 August 2023Published: 10 September 2023

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      Yanxin Wang, Jiye Li, Fayang Liu, Dongxiang Luo, Yunping Wang, Shengdong Zhang, Lei Lu. Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2023, 44(9): 092601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/9/092601 Y X Wang, J Y Li, F Y Liu, D X Luo, Y P Wang, S D Zhang, L Lu. Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors[J]. J. Semicond, 2023, 44(9): 092601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/9/092601Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Yanxin Wang, Jiye Li, Fayang Liu, Dongxiang Luo, Yunping Wang, Shengdong Zhang, Lei Lu. Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2023, 44(9): 092601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/9/092601

      Y X Wang, J Y Li, F Y Liu, D X Luo, Y P Wang, S D Zhang, L Lu. Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors[J]. J. Semicond, 2023, 44(9): 092601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/9/092601
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      Fluorination-mitigated high-current degradation of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/44/9/092601
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      • Yanxin Wang:received his BS degree in 2021 from the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China. Now he is pursuing an MS degree in Microelectronics from Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School. His current research interests include the fabrication and stability study of oxide thin-film transistors
      • Shengdong Zhang:received his BS and MS degrees in Electronic Engineering from Southeast University, and his PhD degree in Microelectronics from Peking University. In 2002, he joined the School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science at Peking University. He is currently a professor at the School of Electronic and Computer Engineering at Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School. His research interests include integrated circuit design, thin-film transistors and flexible display
      • Lei Lu:received his BS and MS degrees in Microelectronics from Soochow University, and his PhD degree in Electronic and Computer Engineering from The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. He worked at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology from 2015 to 2019, and joined the School of Electronic and Computer Engineering at Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School in 2019, where he is now an assistant professor. His research interests include semiconductor devices, advanced display technology and flexible electronics
      • Corresponding author: lulei@pku.edu.cn
      • Received Date: 2023-05-15
      • Revised Date: 2023-07-06
      • Available Online: 2023-08-22

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