In Press
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  • An improved SOI trench LDMOST with double vertical high-k insulator pillars

    Huan Li, Haimeng Huang, Xing Bi Chen

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    An SOI trench LDMOST (TLDMOST) with ultra-low specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) is proposed. It features double vertical high-k insulator pillars (Hk1 and Hk2) in the oxide trench, which are connected to the source electrode and drain electrode, respectively. Firstly, under reverse bias voltage, most electric displacement lines produced by the charges of the depleted drift region in the source side go through the Hk1, and thus the average electric field strength under the source can be enhanced. Secondly, two additional electric field peaks are induced by the Hk1, which further modulate the electric field in the drift region under the source. Thirdly, most electric displacement lines produced by the charges of the depleted drift region in the drain side enter into the Hk2. This not only introduces one more electric field peak at the corner of the oxide trench around the Hk2, but also forms the enhanced vertical reduced surface field effect, which modulates the electric field in the drift region under the drain. With the effects of the two Hk insulator pillars, the breakdown voltage (BV) and the drift region doping concentration are significantly improved. The simulation results indicate that compared with the oxide trench LDMOST (previous TLDMOST) with the same geometry, the proposed double Hk TLDMOST enhances the BV by 86% and reduces the Ron,sp by 88%.

  • Collaborative R&D between multicrystalline silicon ingots and battery efficiency improvement—effect of shadow area in multicrystalline silicon ingots on cell efficiency

    Xiang Zhang, Chunlai Huang, Lei Wang, Min Zhou

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    We characterized strip-like shadows in cast multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingots. Blocks and wafers were analyzed using scanning infrared microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, and microwave photoconductivity decay technique. The effect on solar cell performance is discussed. The results show that the non-microcrystalline shadow region in Si ingots consists of precipitates of Fe, O, and C. The size of these Fe–O–C precipitates found at the shadow region is ~25 μm. Fe–O–C impurities can slightly reduce the minority carrier lifetime of the wafers while severely decrease in shunt resistance, leading to the increase in reverse current of the solar cells and degradation in cell efficiency.

  • Growth and characterization of 2-inch high quality β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by EFG method

    Shengnan Zhang, Xiaozheng Lian, Yanchao Ma, Weidan Liu, Yingwu Zhang, Yongkuan Xu, Hongjuan Cheng

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    β-Ga2O3 is an ultra-wide band-gap semiconductor with promising applications in UV optical detectors, Schottky barrier diodes, field-effect transistors and substrates for light-emitting diodes. However, the preparation of large β-Ga2O3 crystals is undeveloped and many properties of this material have not been discovered yet. In this work, 2-inch β-Ga2O3 single crystals were grown by using an edge-de?ned ?lm-fed growth method. The high quality of the crystal has been proved by high-resolution X-ray diffraction with 19.06 arcsec of the full width at half maximum. The electrical properties and optical properties of both the unintentionally doped and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 crystals were investigated systematically.

  • Coeffect of trapping behaviors on the performance of GaN-based devices

    Xingye Zhou, Xin Tan, Yuangang Wang, Xubo Song, Peng Xu, Guodong Gu, Yuanjie Lü, Zhihong Feng

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Trap-induced current collapse has become one of the critical issues hindering the improvement of GaN-based microwave power devices. It is difficult to study the behavior of each trapping effect separately with the experimental measurement. Transient simulation is a useful technique for analyzing the mechanism of current collapse. In this paper, the coeffect of surface- and bulk-trapping behaviors on the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is investigated based on the two-dimensional (2D) transient simulation. In addition, the mechanism of trapping effects is analyzed from the aspect of device physics. Two simulation models with different types of traps are used for comparison, and the simulated results reproduced the experimental measured data. It is found that the final steady-state current decreases when both the surface and bulk traps are taken into account in the model. However, contrary to the expectation, the total current collapse is dramatically reduced (e.g. from 18% to 4% for the 90 nm gate-length device). The results suggest that the surface-related current collapse of GaN-based HEMTs may be mitigated in some degree due to the participation of bulk traps with short time constant. The work in this paper will be helpful for further optimization design of material and device structures.

  • First-principle high-throughput calculations of carrier effective masses of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    Yuanhui Sun, Xinjiang Wang, Xingang Zhao, Zhiming Shi, Lijun Zhang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Two-dimensional group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides (with the formula of MX2) emerge as a family of intensely investigated semiconductors that are promising for both electronic (because of their reasonable carrier mobility) and optoelectronic (because of their direct band gap at monolayer thickness) applications. Effective mass is a crucial physical quantity determining carriers transport, and thus the performance of these applications. Here we present based on first-principles high-throughput calculations a computational study of carrier effective masses of the two-dimensional MX2 materials. Both electron and hole effective masses of different MX2 (M = Mo, W and X = S, Se, Te), including in-layer/out-of-layer components, thickness dependence, and magnitude variation in heterostructures, are systemically calculated. The numerical results, chemical trends, and the insights gained provide useful guidance for understanding the key factors controlling carrier effective masses in the MX2 system and further engineering the mass values to improve device performance.

  • Comparative analysis of memristor models and memories design

    Jeetendra Singh, Balwinder Raj

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    The advent of the memristor breaks the scaling limitations of MOS technology and prevails over emerging semiconductor devices. In this paper, various memristor models including behaviour, spice, and experimental are investigated and compared with the memristor’s characteristic equations and fingerprints. It has brought to light that most memristor models need a window function to resolve boundary conditions. Various challenges of availed window functions are discussed with matlab’s simulated results. Biolek’s window is a most acceptable window function for the memristor, since it limits boundaries growth as well as sticking of states at boundaries. Simmons tunnel model of a memristor is the most accepted model of a memristor till now. The memristor is exploited very frequently in memory designing and became a prominent candidate for futuristic memories. Here, several memory structures utilizing the memristor are discussed. It is seen that a memristor-transistor hybrid memory cell has fast read/write and low power operations. Whereas, a 1T1R structure provides very simple, nanoscale, and non-volatile memory that has capabilities to replace conventional Flash memories. Moreover, the memristor is frequently used in SRAM cell structures to make them have non-volatile memory. This paper contributes various aspects and recent developments in memristor based circuits, which can enhance the ongoing requirements of modern designing criterion.

  • Data-driven material discovery for photocatalysis: a short review

    Jinbo Pan, Qimin Yan

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this short review, we introduce recent progress in the research field of data-driven material discovery and design for solar fuel generation. Construction of material databases under the materials genome initiative provides a great platform for material discovery and design by creating computational screening pipelines based on the materials’ descriptors. In the field of solar water splitting, data-driven computational discovery approach has been effective in making material predictions. When combined with synergistic and complimentary experimental efforts, high-throughput computations based on density functional theory showed great predictive power for accelerated discovery of inorganic compounds as functional materials for solar fuel generation. As an example, we introduce the theory–experiment joint discovery of a large set of metal oxide photoanode materials that have been theoretically predicted to be efficient candidates and soon verified by synergistic experimental fabrication and characterization processes. In the field of two-dimensional materials, the application of data-driven approach has realized the prediction of many promising candidates with suitable direct band gaps and optimal band edges for the generation of chemical fuels from sunlight, greatly expanding the number of theoretically predicted 2D photoelectrocatalysts that are awaiting experimental verification. We discuss the challenges for the continued discovery and design of novel bulk and 2D compounds for photocatalysis via a data-driven approach. At the end of this review, we provide a brief outlook for future material discoveries in the field of solar fuel generation.

  • Recent progress in Pb-free stable inorganic double halide perovskites

    Zhenzhu Li, Wanjian Yin

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Although the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells have achieved 22.1%, which is comparable to commercialized thin-film CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, the long-term stability is the main obstacle for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Recent efforts have been made to explore alternative inorganic perovskites, which were assumed to have better stability than organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3. In this short review, we will partly summarize recent progress of inorganic double halide perovskite, in particular to Cs2AgBiBr6, Cs2AgInCl6, Cs2InBiBr6 and their family members. We will also share our opinions on the promise of that class of materials.

  • Crystal structure prediction in the context of inverse materials design

    G. Trimarchi

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Inverse materials design tackles the challenge of finding materials with desired properties, tailored to specific applications, by combining atomistic simulations and optimization methods. The search for optimal materials requires one to survey large spaces of candidate solids. These spaces of materials can encompass both known and hypothetical compounds. When hypothetical compounds are explored, it becomes crucial to determine which ones are stable (and can be synthesized) and which are not. Crystal structure prediction is a necessary step for assessing theoretically the stability of a hypothetical material and, therefore, is a crucial step in inverse materials design protocols. Here, we describe how biologically-inspired global optimization methods can efficiently predict the stable crystal structure of solids. Specifically, we discuss the application of genetic algorithms to search for optimal atom configurations in systems in which the underlying lattice is given, and of evolutionary algorithms to address the general lattice-type prediction problem.

  • Research on the hydrogen terminated single crystal diamond MOSFET with MoO3 dielectric and gold gate metal

    Zeyang Ren, Jinfeng Zhang, Jincheng Zhang, Chunfu Zhang, Pengzhi Yang, Dazheng Chen, Yao Li, Yue Hao

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    The single crystal diamond with maximum width about 10 mm has been grown by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition equipment. The quality of the grown diamond was characterized using an X-ray diffractometer. The FWHM of the (004) rocking curve is 37.91 arcsec, which is comparable to the result of the electronic grade single crystal diamond commercially obtained from Element Six Ltd. The hydrogen terminated diamond field effect transistors with Au/MoO3 gates were fabricated based on our CVD diamond and the characteristics of the device were compared with the prototype Al/MoO3 gate. The device with the Au/MoO3 gate shows lower on-resistance and higher gate leakage current. The detailed analysis indicates the presence of aluminum oxide at the Al/MoO3 interface, which has been directly demonstrated by characterizing the interface between Al and MoO3 by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, there should be a surface transfer doping effect of the MoO3 layer on H-diamond even with the atmospheric-adsorbate induced 2DHG preserved after MoO3 deposition.

  • Controlling morphology evolution of AlN nanostructures: influence of growth conditions in physical vapor transport

    Lei Jin, Hongjuan Cheng, Jianli Chen, Song Zhang, Yongkuan Xu, Zhanping Lai

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    A series of AlN nanostructures were synthesized by an ultrahigh-temperature, catalyst-free, physical vapor transport (PVT) process. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) detection show that high quality AlN nanowires were prepared. Nanostructures including nanorings, nanosprings, nanohelices, chain-like nanowires, six-fold symmetric nanostructure and rod-like structure were successfully obtained by controlling the growth duration and temperature. The morphology evolution was attributed to electrostatic polar charge model and the crystalline lattice structure of AlN.

  • The effect of parasitic charge on the output stability of MEMS gyroscopes

    Nan Liu, Yan Su, Xin Tong, Guowei Han, Chaowei Si, Zhaofeng Li, Jin Ning

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    Output voltage drifting was observed in MEMS gyroscopes. Other than the quadrature error, frequency mismatch and quality factor, the dielectric parasitic charge was thought to be a major determinant. We studied the mechanism and variation of the parasitic charge in the MEMS gyroscopes, and analyzed the effect of the parasitic charge on the output stability. This phenomenon was extremely obvious in the Pyrex encapsulated MEMS gyroscopes. Due to the DC voltage required for the electrostatic actuation, the parasitic charge in the dielectric layer would accumulate and induce a residual voltage. This voltage had an impact on the resonant frequency of the gyroscopes, so as to affect the output stability. The theoretical studies were also confirmed by our experimental results. It was shown that the parasitic charge was harmful to the output stability of MEMS gyroscopes.

  • Hybrid AlGaInAs/Si Fabry–Pérot lasers with near-total mode confinements

    Yuede Yang, Shaoshuai Sui, Mingying Tang, Jinlong Xiao, Yun Du, Andrew W. Poon, Yongzhen Huang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    We have proposed and demonstrated hybrid AlGaInAs/Si Fabry–Pérot (FP) lasers, with the FP cavity facet covered by the p-electrode metal for enhancing mode confinement. Continuous-wave lasing is obtained at room temperature with a threshold current of 45 mA for the hybrid FP laser with a cavity length of 415 μm and a width of 7 μm. Near-field optical microscope images indicate an efficient output emission from the underneath evanescently-coupled silicon waveguide. Furthermore, single-mode lasing with a side-mode suppression-ratio of 29 dB and a threshold current of 16 mA is realized for the 150 μm-long hybrid FP laser.

  • The simple two-step polydimethylsiloxane transferring process for high aspect ratio microstructures

    Shaoxi Wang, Dan Feng, Chenxia Hu, P. Rezai

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    High aspect ratio units are necessary parts of complex microstructures in microfluidic devices. Some methods that are available to achieve a high aspect ratio require expensive materials or complex chemical processes; for other methods it is difficult to reach simple high aspect ratio structures, which need supporting structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with a Brij@52 surface solution after getting a relative PDMS mold based on an SU8 mold. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effectiveness.

  • Surface and optical properties of silicon nitride deposited by inductively coupled plasma-chemical vapor deposition

    Yi Zhu, Xingyou Chen, Yingjie Ma, Yonggang Zhang, Ben Du, Yanhui Shi, Yi Gu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    The surface and optical properties of silicon nitride samples with different compositions were investigated. The samples were deposited on InP by inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition using different NH3 flow rates. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that the surface roughness is increased for the samples with both low and high NH3 flow rates. By optimization, when the NH3 flow rate is 6 sccm, a smooth surface with RMS roughness of 0.74 nm over a 5 × 5 μm2 area has been achieved. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal the Si/N ratio of the samples as a function of NH3 flow rate. It is found that amorphous silicon is dominant in the samples with low NH3 flow rates, which is also proved in Raman measurements. The bonding energies of the Si and N atoms have been extracted and analyzed. Results show that the bonding states of Si atoms transfer from Si0 to Si+4 as the NH3 flow rate increases.

  • Hot electron transport in wurtzite-GaN: effects of temperature and doping concentration

    Aritra Acharyya

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    The hot electron transport in wurtzite phase gallium nitride (Wz-GaN) has been studied in this paper. An analytical expression of electron drift velocity under the condition of impact ionization has been developed by considering all major scattering mechanisms such as deformation potential acoustic phonon scattering, piezoelectric acoustic phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering, electron-electron scattering and ionizing scattering. Numerical calculations show that electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN saturates at 1.44 × 105 m/s at room temperature for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3. The effects of temperature and doping concentration on the hot electron drift velocity in Wz-GaN have also been studied. Results show that the saturation electron drift velocity varies from 1.91 × 105 – 0.77 × 105 m/s for the change in temperature within the range of 10–1000 K, for the electron concentration of 1022 m−3; whereas the same varies from 1.44 × 105 – 0.91 × 105 m/s at 300 K for the variation in the electron concentration within the range of 1022 – 1025 m−3. The numerically calculated results have been compared with the Monte Carlo simulated results and experimental data reported earlier, and those are found to be in good agreement.

  • A GaN/InGaN/AlGaN MQW RTD for versatile MVL applications with improved logic stability

    Haipeng Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Mi Lin, Weifeng Lü, Zhonghai Zhang, Jianling Bai, Jian He, Bin Wang, Dejun Wang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    To improve the logic stability of conventional multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits designed with a GaN-based resonate tunneling diode (RTD), we proposed a GaN/InGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) RTD. The proposed RTD was simulated through solving the coupled Schrodinger and Poisson equations in the numerical non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) method on the TCAD platform. The proposed RTD was grown layer by layer in epitaxial technologies. Simulated results indicate that its current-voltage characteristic appears to have a wider total negative differential resistance region than those of conventional ones and an obvious hysteresis loop at room temperature. To increase the Al composite of AlGaN barrier layers properly results in increasing of both the total negative differential resistance region width and the hysteresis loop width, which is helpful to improve the logic stability of MVL circuits. Moreover, the complement resonate tunneling transistor pair consisted of the proposed RTDs or the proposed RTD and enhanced mode HEMT controlled RTD is capable of generating versatile MVL modes at different supply voltages less than 3.3 V, which is very attractive for implementing more complex MVL function digital integrated circuits and systems with less devices, super high speed linear or nonlinear ADC and voltage sensors with a built-in super high speed ADC function.

  • Impact of crystal orientation and surface scattering on DG-MOSFETs in quasi-ballistic region

    Lei Shen, Shaoyan Di, Longxiang Yin, Yun Li, Xiaoyan Liu, Gang Du

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper, the characteristics of nano scale n-type double gate MOSFETs with (100) and (110) surfaces are studied using 3D full band ensemble Monte Carlo simulator. The anisotropic surface scattering mechanism is investigated. The (100) case is sensitive to the gate voltage more than the (110) case. The impact of crystal orientation and surface scattering on transport features mainly reflects in the carrier velocity distribution. The electron transport features with (100) direction are greater than that with (110) direction, but are more likely to be affected by the surface scattering.

  • A review: crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities for pressure sensors by using silicon migration technology

    Jiale Su, Xinwei Zhang, Guoping Zhou, Changfeng Xia, Wuqing Zhou, Qing'an Huang

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    A silicon pressure sensor is one of the very first MEMS components appearing in the microsystem area. The market for the MEMS pressure sensor is rapidly growing due to consumer electronic applications in recent years. Requirements of the pressure sensors with low cost, low power consumption and high accuracy drive one to develop a novel technology. This paper first overviews the historical development of the absolute pressure sensor briefly. It then reviews the state of the art technology for fabricating crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities by using the silicon migration technology in detail. By using only one lithographic step, the membranes defined in lateral and vertical dimensions can be realized by the technology. Finally, applications of MEMS through using the silicon migration technology are summarized.

  • A BFSK and OOK IF demodulation circuit with 2.8 μs settling time and re-configurable image rejection functions for MICS/BCC applications

    Tongqiang Gao, Zhenxiong Chen, Siqi Zhao, Haigang Yang, Xinxia Cai

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper, a BFSK and OOK IF base-band circuit is provided to implement the low-IF RF receivers for a dual-band MICS/BCC network controller. In order to transfer the massive vital data immediately, the IF circuit is comprised of the fast-settling feed-forward programmable gain amplifier (PGA), a GmC complex filter, the fixed gain amplifier (FGA) and a 4-input " quadratic sum” demodulator. A novel auto-switched coarse gain-setting method is adopted in the PGA to enhance the reaction speed and narrow the output signal range. Also the PGA does not suffer the same stability constraint as open-loop topologies. The complex filter fulfills the function of image rejection, in which the center frequency and bandwidth can be adjusted individually. The FGA is used to ameliorate the linearity and the ‘quadratic sum’ demodulator can reduce the overall power consumption. The designed IF circuit is fabricated with SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The chip area is about 5.36 mm2. Measurement results are given to verify the design goals.

  • Micro-plasma noise of 30 krad gamma irradiation broken-down GaN-based LED

    Yu’an Liu

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    A correlation model between micro plasma noise and gamma irradiation of GaN-based LED is built. The reverse bias I–V characteristics and micro-plasma noise were measured in it, before and after Gamma irradiation. It is found that even after 30 krad Gamma irradiation, the GaN-based LED has soft breakdown failure. The reverse soft breakdown region current local instability of this device before irradiation is analyzed by the micro-plasma noise method. The results were obtained that if the GaN-based LED contained micro-plasma defects, it will fail after low doses (30 krad) of gamma irradiation. The results clearly reflect the micro-plasma defects induced carriers fluctuation noise and the local instability of GaN-based LED reverse bias current.

  • Small-signal model parameter extraction of E-mode N-polar GaN MOS-HEMT using optimization algorithms and its comparison

    D. K. Panda, G. Amarnath, T. R. Lenka

    , Available online

    Abstract Full Text PDF

    In this paper an improved small-signal parameter extraction technique for short channel enhancement-mode N-polar GaN MOS-HEMT is proposed, which is a combination of a conventional analytical method and optimization techniques. The extrinsic parameters such as parasitic capacitance, inductance and resistance are extracted under the pinch-off condition. The intrinsic parameters of the small-signal equivalent circuit (SSEC) have been extracted including gate forward and backward conductance. Different optimization algorithms such as PSO, Quasi Newton and Firefly optimization algorithm is applied to the extracted parameters to minimize the error between modeled and measured S-parameters. The different optimized SSEC models have been validated by comparing the S-parameters and unity current-gain with TCAD simulations and available experimental data from the literature. It is observed that the Firefly algorithm based optimization approach accurately extracts the small-signal model parameters as compared to other optimization algorithm techniques with a minimum error percentage of 1.3%.

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