J. Semicond. > Volume 35 > Issue 3 > Article Number: 033001

Physical vapor transport crystal growth of ZnO

Yang Liu , Jianping Ma , , Fuli Liu , Yuan Zang and Yantao Liu

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Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) has a wide band gap, high stability and a high thermal operating range that makes it a suitable material as a semiconductor for fabricating light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes, photodiodes, power diodes and other semiconductor devices. Recently, a new crystal growth for producing ZnO crystal boules was developed, which was physical vapor transport (PVT), at temperatures exceeding 1500℃ under a certain system pressure. ZnO crystal wafers in sizes up to 50 mm in diameter were produced. The conditions of ZnO crystal growth, growth rate and the quality of ZnO crystal were analyzed. Results from crystal growth and material characterization are presented and discussed. Our research results suggest that the novel crystal growth technique is a viable production technique for producing ZnO crystals and substrates for semiconductor device applications.

Key words: ZnOcrystal boulesphysical vapor transport (PVT)sublimationimpurity analysisgrowth rate

Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) has a wide band gap, high stability and a high thermal operating range that makes it a suitable material as a semiconductor for fabricating light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes, photodiodes, power diodes and other semiconductor devices. Recently, a new crystal growth for producing ZnO crystal boules was developed, which was physical vapor transport (PVT), at temperatures exceeding 1500℃ under a certain system pressure. ZnO crystal wafers in sizes up to 50 mm in diameter were produced. The conditions of ZnO crystal growth, growth rate and the quality of ZnO crystal were analyzed. Results from crystal growth and material characterization are presented and discussed. Our research results suggest that the novel crystal growth technique is a viable production technique for producing ZnO crystals and substrates for semiconductor device applications.

Key words: ZnOcrystal boulesphysical vapor transport (PVT)sublimationimpurity analysisgrowth rate



References:

[1]

Look D C. Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices[J]. Mater Sci Eng, 2001, B80: 383.

[2]

Molnar R J, Maki P, Aggarwal R. Gallium nitride thick films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy[J]. Mat Res Soc Sympo Proc, 1996, 423: 221. doi: 10.1557/PROC-423-221

[3]

Paszkiewicz R, Paszkiewicz B, Korbutowicz R. MOVPE GaN grown on alternative substrates[J]. J Cryst Res Technol, 2001, 36: 971. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-4079

[4]

Sakagami N. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of ZnO single crystals of high purity[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1990, 99: 905. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(08)80050-4

[5]

Maeda K, Sato M, Niikura I. Growth of 2 inch ZnO bulk single crystals by the hydrothermal method[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 2005, 20(4): S49. doi: 10.1088/0268-1242/20/4/006

[6]

Ohshima E, Ogino H, Niikura I. Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2004, 260(1/2): 166.

[7]

Klimm D, Ganschow S, Schulz S. The growth of ZnO crystals from the melt[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2008, 310(12): 3009. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.02.027

[8]

Grasza K, Mycielski A. Contactless CVT growth of ZnO crystals[J]. Phys Status Solidi, 2005, 2(3): 1115. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1610-1642

[9]

Cantwell G, Zhang J, Song J J. Vapor transport growth of ZnO substrates and homoepitaxy of ZnO device layers. In:Litton C W, Reynolds D C, Collins T C, ed. Zinc oxide materials for electronic and optoelectronic device applications[J]. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2011: 171.

[10]

Ntep J M, Barbe M, Cohen-Solal G. ZnO growth by chemically assisted sublimation[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1998, 184.

[11]

Li X, Xu J, Jin M. Growth of ZnO single crystals by an induced nucleation from a high temperature solution of the ZnO-PbF2 system[J]. Cryst Res Technol, 2007, 42(3): 221. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-4079

[12]

Fujii T, Yoshii N, Masuda R. Nucleation and coalescence behavior for epitaxial ZnO layers on ZnO/sapphire templates grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2009, 311(4): 1056. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.12.026

[13]

Rojo J C, Liang S, Chen H. Physical vapor transport crystal growth of ZnO. In:Teherani F H, Litton C W, ed. Zinc oxide material and device[J]. Proc SPIE, 2006, 6122: 61220Q1.

[14]

Wang S, Kopec A, Timmerman A G. Growth and characterization of large-diameter, lithium-free ZnO single crystals. In:Teherani F H, Look D C, Rogers D J, ed[J]. Proc SPIE, 2012, 8263: 82630E. doi: 10.1117/12.914059

[15]

Wang S. Method for production of zinc oxide single crystals. USA Patent, No. 2012/0086001

[16]

Wang S. Method and apparatus for zinc oxide single crystal boule growth. USA Patent, No. 7279040

[17]

Zhao Youwen, Dong Zhiyuan. Growth of ZnO single crystal by chemical vapor transport method[J]. Chinese Journal of Semiconductors, 2006, 27(2): 336.

[18]

Zhang Fan, Zhao Youwen, Dong Zhiyuan. Bulk single crystal growth and properties of In-doped ZnO[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2008, 29(8): 1540.

[1]

Look D C. Recent advances in ZnO materials and devices[J]. Mater Sci Eng, 2001, B80: 383.

[2]

Molnar R J, Maki P, Aggarwal R. Gallium nitride thick films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy[J]. Mat Res Soc Sympo Proc, 1996, 423: 221. doi: 10.1557/PROC-423-221

[3]

Paszkiewicz R, Paszkiewicz B, Korbutowicz R. MOVPE GaN grown on alternative substrates[J]. J Cryst Res Technol, 2001, 36: 971. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-4079

[4]

Sakagami N. Hydrothermal growth and characterization of ZnO single crystals of high purity[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1990, 99: 905. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(08)80050-4

[5]

Maeda K, Sato M, Niikura I. Growth of 2 inch ZnO bulk single crystals by the hydrothermal method[J]. Semicond Sci Technol, 2005, 20(4): S49. doi: 10.1088/0268-1242/20/4/006

[6]

Ohshima E, Ogino H, Niikura I. Growth of the 2-in-size bulk ZnO single crystals by the hydrothermal method[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2004, 260(1/2): 166.

[7]

Klimm D, Ganschow S, Schulz S. The growth of ZnO crystals from the melt[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2008, 310(12): 3009. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.02.027

[8]

Grasza K, Mycielski A. Contactless CVT growth of ZnO crystals[J]. Phys Status Solidi, 2005, 2(3): 1115. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1610-1642

[9]

Cantwell G, Zhang J, Song J J. Vapor transport growth of ZnO substrates and homoepitaxy of ZnO device layers. In:Litton C W, Reynolds D C, Collins T C, ed. Zinc oxide materials for electronic and optoelectronic device applications[J]. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2011: 171.

[10]

Ntep J M, Barbe M, Cohen-Solal G. ZnO growth by chemically assisted sublimation[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1998, 184.

[11]

Li X, Xu J, Jin M. Growth of ZnO single crystals by an induced nucleation from a high temperature solution of the ZnO-PbF2 system[J]. Cryst Res Technol, 2007, 42(3): 221. doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1521-4079

[12]

Fujii T, Yoshii N, Masuda R. Nucleation and coalescence behavior for epitaxial ZnO layers on ZnO/sapphire templates grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2009, 311(4): 1056. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.12.026

[13]

Rojo J C, Liang S, Chen H. Physical vapor transport crystal growth of ZnO. In:Teherani F H, Litton C W, ed. Zinc oxide material and device[J]. Proc SPIE, 2006, 6122: 61220Q1.

[14]

Wang S, Kopec A, Timmerman A G. Growth and characterization of large-diameter, lithium-free ZnO single crystals. In:Teherani F H, Look D C, Rogers D J, ed[J]. Proc SPIE, 2012, 8263: 82630E. doi: 10.1117/12.914059

[15]

Wang S. Method for production of zinc oxide single crystals. USA Patent, No. 2012/0086001

[16]

Wang S. Method and apparatus for zinc oxide single crystal boule growth. USA Patent, No. 7279040

[17]

Zhao Youwen, Dong Zhiyuan. Growth of ZnO single crystal by chemical vapor transport method[J]. Chinese Journal of Semiconductors, 2006, 27(2): 336.

[18]

Zhang Fan, Zhao Youwen, Dong Zhiyuan. Bulk single crystal growth and properties of In-doped ZnO[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2008, 29(8): 1540.

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Y Liu, J P Ma, F L Liu, Y Zang, Y T Liu. Physical vapor transport crystal growth of ZnO[J]. J. Semicond., 2014, 35(3): 033001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/3/033001.

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Manuscript received: 12 August 2013 Manuscript revised: 27 September 2013 Online: Published: 01 March 2014

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