J. Semicond. > 2015, Volume 36 > Issue 12 > Article Number: 122001

Variable range hopping conduction in n-CdSe samples at very low temperature

M Errai 1, , A El Kaaouachi 1, and H El Idrissi 2,

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Abstract: We reanalyzed experimental data already published in Friedman J R, Zhang Y, Dai P, et al. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53(15):9528. Variable range hopping(VRH) conduction in the insulating three-dimensional n-CdSe samples has been studied over the entire temperature range from 0.03 to 1 K. In the absence of a magnetic field, the low temperature conductivity σ of the three samples(A, B and C) obeys the Mott VRH conduction with an appropriate temperature dependence in the prefactor(σ=σ0 exp[-(T0/T)p with p≈0.25). This behavior can be explained by a VRH model where the transport occurs by hopping between localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, EF, without creation of the Coulomb gap(CG). On the contrary, no Efros-Shklovskii VRH is observed, suggesting that the density is constant in the vicinity of the EF.

Key words: n-CdSe sampleslow temperaturevariable range hoppingdensity of state

Abstract: We reanalyzed experimental data already published in Friedman J R, Zhang Y, Dai P, et al. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53(15):9528. Variable range hopping(VRH) conduction in the insulating three-dimensional n-CdSe samples has been studied over the entire temperature range from 0.03 to 1 K. In the absence of a magnetic field, the low temperature conductivity σ of the three samples(A, B and C) obeys the Mott VRH conduction with an appropriate temperature dependence in the prefactor(σ=σ0 exp[-(T0/T)p with p≈0.25). This behavior can be explained by a VRH model where the transport occurs by hopping between localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level, EF, without creation of the Coulomb gap(CG). On the contrary, no Efros-Shklovskii VRH is observed, suggesting that the density is constant in the vicinity of the EF.

Key words: n-CdSe sampleslow temperaturevariable range hoppingdensity of state



References:

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Fogler M M, Teber S, Shklovskii B I. Variable-range hopping in quasi-one-dimensional electron crystals[J]. Phys Rev B, 2004, 69: 035413.

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Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, El Idrissi H. Hopping conduction in amorphous silicon-chromium films at very low temperature[J]. AIP Conf Proc, 2014, 1574: 291.

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Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, Narjis A. Crossover from Efros-Shklovskii to Mott variable range hopping in amorphous thin NixSi1-x films[J]. Chinese Journal of Physics, 2014, 52: 251.

[8]

El Kaaouachi A, Abdia R, Nafidi A. Positive magnetoresistance in the variable range hopping regime in CdSe[J]. Physica E, 2006, 32: 419.

[9]

Abdia R, El Kaaouachi A, Nafidi A. Variable range hopping conductivity and negative magnetoresistance in n-type InP semiconductor[J]. Solid-State Electron, 2009, 53: 469.

[10]

Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, El Idrissi H. Electrical properties of 70Ge:Ga near the metal-insulator transition[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(6): 062001.

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Narjis A, El Kaaouachi A, Limouny L. Study of insulating electrical conductivity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-nickel alloys at very low temperature[J]. Physica B, 2011, 406: 4155.

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Vekilov Y K, Mukovskii Y M. Variable range hopping conductivity in manganites[J]. Solid State Commun, 2012, 152: 1139.

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[14]

Zabrodskii A G, Zinoveva K N. Low-temperature conductivity and metal-insulator transition in compensate n-Ge[J]. Soviet Physics-JETP, 1984, 59: 425.

[15]

Friedman J R, Zhang Y, Dai P. Magnetic-field-induced crossover from Mott variable-range hopping to weakly insulating behavior[J]. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53: 9528.

[16]

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[18]

Rosenbaum R, Murphy T, Palm E. Magnetoresistance of insulating amorphous NixSi1-x films exhibiting Mott variable-range hopping[J]. Phys Rev B, 2001, 63: 094426.

[19]

Makise K, Hidaka K, Ezaki S. Metal-insulator transitions in IZO, IGZO, and ITZO films[J]. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116: 153703.

[20]

Vaziri M. Low-temperature conductivity of epitaxial ZnSe in the impurity band regime[J]. Appl Phys Lett, 1994, 65: 2568.

[21]

Shekhar S, Prasad V, Subramanyam S V. Anomalous Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping conduction in composites of polymer and iron carbide nanoparticles embedded in carbon[J]. Phys Lett A, 2006, 360: 390.

[22]

Mitin V F, Kholevchuk V V, Kolodych B P. Ge-on-GaAs film resistance thermometers:low-temperature conduction and magnetoresistance[J]. Cryogenics, 2011, 51(1): 68.

[1]

Mott N F. Conduction in glasses containing transition metal ions[J]. J Non-Cryst Solids, 1968, 1: 1.

[2]

Mott N F. Metal-insulator transitions[J]. London:Taylor and Francis, 1974.

[3]

Shklovskii B I, Efros A L. Electronic properties of doped semiconductors[J]. Berlin:Springer, 1984.

[4]

Efros A L, Shklovskii B I. Coulomb gap and low-temperature conductivity of disordered systems[J]. J Phys C, 1975, 8.

[5]

Fogler M M, Teber S, Shklovskii B I. Variable-range hopping in quasi-one-dimensional electron crystals[J]. Phys Rev B, 2004, 69: 035413.

[6]

Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, El Idrissi H. Hopping conduction in amorphous silicon-chromium films at very low temperature[J]. AIP Conf Proc, 2014, 1574: 291.

[7]

Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, Narjis A. Crossover from Efros-Shklovskii to Mott variable range hopping in amorphous thin NixSi1-x films[J]. Chinese Journal of Physics, 2014, 52: 251.

[8]

El Kaaouachi A, Abdia R, Nafidi A. Positive magnetoresistance in the variable range hopping regime in CdSe[J]. Physica E, 2006, 32: 419.

[9]

Abdia R, El Kaaouachi A, Nafidi A. Variable range hopping conductivity and negative magnetoresistance in n-type InP semiconductor[J]. Solid-State Electron, 2009, 53: 469.

[10]

Errai M, El Kaaouachi A, El Idrissi H. Electrical properties of 70Ge:Ga near the metal-insulator transition[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(6): 062001.

[11]

Narjis A, El Kaaouachi A, Limouny L. Study of insulating electrical conductivity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon-nickel alloys at very low temperature[J]. Physica B, 2011, 406: 4155.

[12]

Vekilov Y K, Mukovskii Y M. Variable range hopping conductivity in manganites[J]. Solid State Commun, 2012, 152: 1139.

[13]

Adkins C J. Conduction in granular metals-variable-range hopping in a Coulomb gap[J]. Phys Condens Matter, 1989, 1: 1253.

[14]

Zabrodskii A G, Zinoveva K N. Low-temperature conductivity and metal-insulator transition in compensate n-Ge[J]. Soviet Physics-JETP, 1984, 59: 425.

[15]

Friedman J R, Zhang Y, Dai P. Magnetic-field-induced crossover from Mott variable-range hopping to weakly insulating behavior[J]. Phys Rev B, 1996, 53: 9528.

[16]

Waller D. Operations management:a supply chain approach[J]. Cengage Learning Business Press, 2003.

[17]

Khan A, Hildreth W B. Case studies in public budgeting and financial management[J]. New York, NY:Marcel Dekker, 2003.

[18]

Rosenbaum R, Murphy T, Palm E. Magnetoresistance of insulating amorphous NixSi1-x films exhibiting Mott variable-range hopping[J]. Phys Rev B, 2001, 63: 094426.

[19]

Makise K, Hidaka K, Ezaki S. Metal-insulator transitions in IZO, IGZO, and ITZO films[J]. J Appl Phys, 2014, 116: 153703.

[20]

Vaziri M. Low-temperature conductivity of epitaxial ZnSe in the impurity band regime[J]. Appl Phys Lett, 1994, 65: 2568.

[21]

Shekhar S, Prasad V, Subramanyam S V. Anomalous Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping conduction in composites of polymer and iron carbide nanoparticles embedded in carbon[J]. Phys Lett A, 2006, 360: 390.

[22]

Mitin V F, Kholevchuk V V, Kolodych B P. Ge-on-GaAs film resistance thermometers:low-temperature conduction and magnetoresistance[J]. Cryogenics, 2011, 51(1): 68.

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M Errai, A E Kaaoouachi, H E Idrissi. Variable range hopping conduction in n-CdSe samples at very low temperature[J]. J. Semicond., 2015, 36(12): 122001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/12/122001.

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Manuscript received: 06 April 2015 Manuscript revised: Online: Published: 01 December 2015

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