J. Semicond. > Volume 40 > Issue 3 > Article Number: 032703

Pyramid size control and morphology treatment for high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells

Xiaorang Tian 1, 2, 3, , , Peide Han 1, 2, , Guanchao Zhao 3, , Rong Yang 3, , Liwei Li 3, , Yuan Meng 3, and Ted Guo 3,

+ Author Affilications + Find other works by these authors

PDF

Turn off MathJax

Abstract: This paper investigates the formation process of surface pyramid and etching characteristics during the texturing process of mono-crystalline silicon wafers. It is found that there is an etch rate transition point in alkaline anisotropic etching when {100} plane-dominated etch turns to {111} plane-dominated etch, and the pyramid size has a strong linear correlation with the etch amount at the transition point. Several techniques were developed to control the pyramid size by monitoring and adjusting the etching amount. A wide range of average pyramid sizes were successfully achieved, from 0.5 to 12 μm. The experiments of the pyramid size on the light reflectance, the minority carrier lifetime (MCLT), and the performance of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells were carried out and analyzed. A desirable range of pyramid sizes was empirically determined by our investigation. In order to reduce the density states on the texturing surface, the wet-chemical smoothing treatment was also investigated. The smoothing treatment improves the passivation quality and the performance of the solar cells. Through pyramid size control and morphology treatment, together with the amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposition improvement, and electrode optimization, high performance of SHJ solar cells has been achieved, up to conversion efficiency 23.6%.

Key words: pyramid sizesiliconheterojunctionpassivation

Abstract: This paper investigates the formation process of surface pyramid and etching characteristics during the texturing process of mono-crystalline silicon wafers. It is found that there is an etch rate transition point in alkaline anisotropic etching when {100} plane-dominated etch turns to {111} plane-dominated etch, and the pyramid size has a strong linear correlation with the etch amount at the transition point. Several techniques were developed to control the pyramid size by monitoring and adjusting the etching amount. A wide range of average pyramid sizes were successfully achieved, from 0.5 to 12 μm. The experiments of the pyramid size on the light reflectance, the minority carrier lifetime (MCLT), and the performance of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells were carried out and analyzed. A desirable range of pyramid sizes was empirically determined by our investigation. In order to reduce the density states on the texturing surface, the wet-chemical smoothing treatment was also investigated. The smoothing treatment improves the passivation quality and the performance of the solar cells. Through pyramid size control and morphology treatment, together with the amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) deposition improvement, and electrode optimization, high performance of SHJ solar cells has been achieved, up to conversion efficiency 23.6%.

Key words: pyramid sizesiliconheterojunctionpassivation



References:

[1]

Angermann H, Conrad E, Korte L, et al. Passivation of textured substrates for a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells: Effect of wet-chemical smoothing and intrinsic a-Si:H interlayer. Mater Sci Eng B, 2010, 159: 219

[2]

Rocío B, Nieves G, Cárabe J, et al. Optimisation of NaOH texturisation process of silicon wafers for heterojunction solar-cells applications. Solar Energy, 2012, 86: 845

[3]

Simeon C, Finch B. Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2011, 19: 406

[4]

Hiroyuki F, Michio K. Impact of epitaxial growth at the heterointerface of a-Si:H/c-Si/a-Si:H/c-Si solar cells. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 013503.

[5]

Kegela J, Angermann H, Stürzebecher U, et al. Over 20% conversion efficiency on silicon heterojunction solar cells by IPA-free substrate texturization. Appl Surf Sci, 2014, 301: 56

[6]

Kegela J, Angermann H, Stürzebecher U, et al. IPA-free textured a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells exceeding 20% efficiency. Proc 28th EU PVSEC, 2013: 1093

[7]

Bonilla R S, Hoex B, Hamer P, et al. Dielectric surface passivation for silicon solar cells: A review. Phys Status Solidi, 2017, 7: 214

[8]

Edwards M, Bowden S, Das U. Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2008, 92: 1373

[9]

Mrazkova Z, Sobkowicz I P, Foldyna M, et al. Optical properties and performance of pyramidal texture silicon heterojunction solar cells: Key role of vertex angles. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2018, 26: 369

[10]

Nagel H, Berge C, Aberle A G. Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and quasi-transient measurements of carrier lifetimes in semiconductors. J Appl Phys, 1999, 86: 6218

[11]

Siah S C, Berge C, Aberle A G, et al. Proof-of-concept framework to separate recombination processes in thin silicon wafers using transient free-carrier absorption spectroscopy. J Appl Phys, 2015, 117: 662

[12]

Fesquet L, Olibet S, Lacoste J D, et al. Modification of textured silicon wafer surface morphology for fabrication of heterojunction solar cell with open circuit voltage over 700 mV. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2009: 754

[13]

Wolf S D, Kondo D. Abruptness of a-Si:H/c-Si interface revealed by carrier lifetime measurements. Applied Physics Lefters, 2007, 90: 042111

[14]

Lacoste J D, Roca C P. Toward a better physical understanding of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells. J Appl Phys, 2009, 105: 345

[15]

Das U K, Burrows M Z, Lu M, et al. Surface passivation and heterojunction cells on Si (100) and (111) wafers using dc and rf plasma deposited Si:H thin films. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 92: 481

[16]

Stegemann B, Kegel J, Mews M, et al. Passivation of textured silicon wafers: influence of pyramid size distribution, a-Si:H deposition temperature, and post-treatment. Energy Procedia, 2013, 38: 881

[17]

Lien S Y, Yang C H, Lin Y S, et al. Optimization of textured structure on crystalline silicon wafer for heterojunction solar cell. Mater Chem Phys, 2012, 133: 63

[18]

Stegemann B, Kegel J, Gref O. Conditioning of textured silicon solar cell substrates by wet-chemical treatments. 27th EUPVSEC, 2011: 547

[1]

Angermann H, Conrad E, Korte L, et al. Passivation of textured substrates for a-Si:H/c-Si hetero-junction solar cells: Effect of wet-chemical smoothing and intrinsic a-Si:H interlayer. Mater Sci Eng B, 2010, 159: 219

[2]

Rocío B, Nieves G, Cárabe J, et al. Optimisation of NaOH texturisation process of silicon wafers for heterojunction solar-cells applications. Solar Energy, 2012, 86: 845

[3]

Simeon C, Finch B. Reflection of normally incident light from silicon solar cells with pyramidal texture. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2011, 19: 406

[4]

Hiroyuki F, Michio K. Impact of epitaxial growth at the heterointerface of a-Si:H/c-Si/a-Si:H/c-Si solar cells. Appl Phys Lett, 2007, 90: 013503.

[5]

Kegela J, Angermann H, Stürzebecher U, et al. Over 20% conversion efficiency on silicon heterojunction solar cells by IPA-free substrate texturization. Appl Surf Sci, 2014, 301: 56

[6]

Kegela J, Angermann H, Stürzebecher U, et al. IPA-free textured a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells exceeding 20% efficiency. Proc 28th EU PVSEC, 2013: 1093

[7]

Bonilla R S, Hoex B, Hamer P, et al. Dielectric surface passivation for silicon solar cells: A review. Phys Status Solidi, 2017, 7: 214

[8]

Edwards M, Bowden S, Das U. Effect of texturing and surface preparation on lifetime and cell performance in heterojunction silicon solar cells. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2008, 92: 1373

[9]

Mrazkova Z, Sobkowicz I P, Foldyna M, et al. Optical properties and performance of pyramidal texture silicon heterojunction solar cells: Key role of vertex angles. Prog Photovolt: Res Appl, 2018, 26: 369

[10]

Nagel H, Berge C, Aberle A G. Generalized analysis of quasi-steady-state and quasi-transient measurements of carrier lifetimes in semiconductors. J Appl Phys, 1999, 86: 6218

[11]

Siah S C, Berge C, Aberle A G, et al. Proof-of-concept framework to separate recombination processes in thin silicon wafers using transient free-carrier absorption spectroscopy. J Appl Phys, 2015, 117: 662

[12]

Fesquet L, Olibet S, Lacoste J D, et al. Modification of textured silicon wafer surface morphology for fabrication of heterojunction solar cell with open circuit voltage over 700 mV. Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2009: 754

[13]

Wolf S D, Kondo D. Abruptness of a-Si:H/c-Si interface revealed by carrier lifetime measurements. Applied Physics Lefters, 2007, 90: 042111

[14]

Lacoste J D, Roca C P. Toward a better physical understanding of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells. J Appl Phys, 2009, 105: 345

[15]

Das U K, Burrows M Z, Lu M, et al. Surface passivation and heterojunction cells on Si (100) and (111) wafers using dc and rf plasma deposited Si:H thin films. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 92: 481

[16]

Stegemann B, Kegel J, Mews M, et al. Passivation of textured silicon wafers: influence of pyramid size distribution, a-Si:H deposition temperature, and post-treatment. Energy Procedia, 2013, 38: 881

[17]

Lien S Y, Yang C H, Lin Y S, et al. Optimization of textured structure on crystalline silicon wafer for heterojunction solar cell. Mater Chem Phys, 2012, 133: 63

[18]

Stegemann B, Kegel J, Gref O. Conditioning of textured silicon solar cell substrates by wet-chemical treatments. 27th EUPVSEC, 2011: 547

[1]

Decheng Yang, Fang Lang, Zhuo Xu, Jinchao Shi, Gaofei Li, Zhiyan Hu, Jingfeng Xiong. Influence of atomic layer deposition Al2O3 nano-layer on the surface passivation of silicon solar cells. J. Semicond., 2014, 35(5): 052002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/5/052002

[2]

Chao Xiong, Jin Xiao, Lei Chen, Wenhan Du, Weilong Xu, Dongdong Hou. Interfacial passivation of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction by CuI thin layer. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(12): 124013. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/12/124013

[3]

Jingyan Li, Xiangbo Zeng, Hao Li, Xiaobing Xie, Ping Yang, Haibo Xiao, Xiaodong Zhang, Qiming Wang. Reduced defect density in microcrystalline silicon by hydrogen plasma treatment. J. Semicond., 2013, 34(10): 103006. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/34/10/103006

[4]

Qiao Hui, Xu Guoqing, Jia Jia, Li Xiangyang. Surface Passivation of Variable-Area HgCdTe Photovoltaic Detectors. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(7): 1383.

[5]

Xin Tan, Yuanjie Lü, Guodong Gu, Li Wang, Shaobo Dun, Xubo Song, Hongyu Guo, Jiayun Yin, Shujun Cai, Zhihong Feng. High performance AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with AlN/SiNx passivation. J. Semicond., 2015, 36(7): 074008. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/7/074008

[6]

Li Chengzhan, Liu Dan, Zheng Yingkui, Liu Xinyu, Liu Jian, Wei Ke, He Zhijing. Performance Improvement of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by Surface Treatment Prior to Si3N4 Passivation. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(2): 329.

[7]

Zongcun Liang, Dianlei Wang, Yanbin Zhu. Effects of substrate characteristics on the passivation performance of ALD-Al2O3 thin film for high-efficiency solar cells. J. Semicond., 2014, 35(5): 054002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/5/054002

[8]

Yamei Wu, Ruixia Yang, Hanmin Tian, Shuai Chen. Photoelectric characteristics of CH3NH3PbI3/p-Si heterojunction. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(5): 053002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/5/053002

[9]

Zhang Qunfang, Zhu Meifang, Liu Fengzhen, Zhou Yuqin. High-Efficiency n-nc-Si:H/p-c-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells. J. Semicond., 2007, 28(1): 96.

[10]

Mingdong Yi, Ning Zhang, Linghai Xie, Wei Huang. Ambipolar organic heterojunction transistors based on F16CuPc/CuPc with a MoO3 buffer layer. J. Semicond., 2015, 36(10): 104001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/10/104001

[11]

S. Guitouni, M. Khammar, M. Messaoudi, N. Attaf, M.S. Aida. Electrical properties of Cu4ZnSnS2/ZnS heterojunction prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(12): 122001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/12/122001

[12]

Suranjana Banerjee, Monojit Mitra. Large signal and noise properties of heterojunction AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs DDRIMPATTs. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(6): 064002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/6/064002

[13]

Ying Wu, Jing Wang, Yunfang Huang, Yuelin Wei, Zhixian Sun, Xuanqing Zheng, Chengkun Zhang, Ningling Zhou, Leqing Fan, Jihuai Wu. Solvothermal synthesis of Bi2O3/BiVO4 heterojunction with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(8): 083004. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/8/083004

[14]

Yanlong Yin, Jiang Li, Yang Xu, Hon Ki Tsang, Daoxin Dai. Silicon-graphene photonic devices. J. Semicond., 2018, 39(6): 061009. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/061009

[15]

Xue Chunlai, Yao Fei, Cheng Buwen, Wang Qiming. Effect of Substrate Structure on the Performance of a Silicon On-Chip Spiral Inductor. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(11): 1955.

[16]

Zhang Jiahong, Huang Qing’an, Yu Hong, Lei Shuangying. A Theoretical Study of the Piezoresistivity of a p-Type Silicon Nanoplate. J. Semicond., 2008, 29(5): 970.

[17]

Chen Zhaoyang, Ba Weizhen, Zhang Jian, Cong Xiuyun, Bakhadyrkhanov M K, Zikrillaev N F. Current Oscillation Properties of Manganese-Doped-Silicon Materials. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(9): 1582.

[18]

Chen Hailong, Wang Lei, Ma Xiangyang, . Infrared Spectrum of Nitrogen-Vacancy Complexes in Nitrogen-Implanted Silicon. J. Semicond., 2006, 27(7): 1209.

[19]

Zhang Xingli, Sun Zhaowei. Effects of vacancy structural defects on the thermal conductivity of silicon thin films. J. Semicond., 2011, 32(5): 053002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/32/5/053002

[20]

Haokun Yang, Yuling Liu, Ming Sun, Yingde Li. The micro morphology correction function of a silicon wafer CMP surface. J. Semicond., 2014, 35(5): 053002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/5/053002

Search

Advanced Search >>

GET CITATION

X R Tian, P D Han, G C Zhao, R Yang, L W Li, Y Meng, T Guo, Pyramid size control and morphology treatment for high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(3): 032703. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/3/032703.

Export: BibTex EndNote

Article Metrics

Article views: 527 Times PDF downloads: 35 Times Cited by: 0 Times

History

Manuscript received: 22 September 2018 Manuscript revised: Online: Accepted Manuscript: 11 January 2019 Uncorrected proof: 19 January 2019 Published: 01 March 2019

Email This Article

User name:
Email:*请输入正确邮箱
Code:*验证码错误