J. Semicond. > 2019, Volume 40 > Issue 8 > 081504, doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/081504

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# High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems

Bo Gu1, 2,

Corresponding author: Bo Gu, gubo@ucas.ac.cn

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Abstract: Magnetic semiconductors have been demonstrated to work at low temperatures, but not yet at room temperature for spin electronic applications. In contrast to the p-type diluted magnetic semiconductors, n-type diluted magnetic semiconductors are few. Using a combined method of the density function theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulation, we briefly discuss the recent progress to obtain diluted magnetic semiconductors with both p- and n-type carriers by choosing host semiconductors with a narrow band gap. In addition, the recent progress on two-dimensional intrinsic magnetic semiconductors with possible room temperature ferromangetism and quantum anomalous Hall effect are also discussed.

 [1] Maekawa S. Concepts in spin electronics. Oxford University Press, 2006 [2] Maekawa S, Valenzuela S O, Saitoh E, et al. Spin current. Oxford University Press, 2012 [3] Kenney D, Norman C. What don’t we know. Science, 2005, 309, 75 [4] Ohno H. Making nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic. Science, 1998, 281, 951 [5] Dietl T. A ten-year perspective on dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides. Nat Mater, 2010, 9, 965 doi: 10.1038/nmat2898 [6] Chen L, Yang X, Yang F, et al. Enhancing the Curie temperature of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As to 200 K via nanostructure engineering. Nano Lett, 2011, 11, 2584 [7] Masek J, Kudrnovsky J, Maca F, et al. Dilute moment n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)As. Phys Rev Lett, 2007, 98, 067202 [8] Deng Z, Jin C Q, Liu Q Q, et al. Li(Zn,Mn)As as a new generation ferromagnet based on a I–II–V semiconductor. Nat Commun, 2011, 2, 422 [9] Deng Z, Zhao K, Gu B, et al. Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)P with decoupled charge and spin doping. Phys Rev B, 2013, 88, 081203 [10] Ding C, Man H, Qin C, et al. (La1– xBa x)(Zn1– xMn x)AsO: A two-dimensional 1111-type diluted magnetic semiconductor in bulk form. Phys Rev B, 2013, 88, 041102 [11] Zhao K, Deng Z, Wang X C, et al. New diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with Curie temperature up to 180 K and isostructural to the 122 iron-based superconductors. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 1442 [12] Zhao K, Chen B J, Zhao G Q, et al. Ferromagnetism at 230 K in (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2 diluted magnetic semiconductor. Chin Sci Bull, 2014, 59, 2524 [13] Glasbrenner J K, Zutic I, Mazin I I. Theory of Mn-doped II–II–V semiconductors. Phys Rev B, 2014, 90, 140403 [14] Suzuki H, Zhao K, Shibata G, et al. Photoemission and X-ray absorption studies of the isostructural to Fe-based superconductors diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1– xK x(Zn1– yMn y)2As2. Phys Rev B, 2015, 91, 140401 [15] Suzuki H, Zhao G Q, Zhao K, et al. Fermi surfaces and p-d hybridization in the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1– xK x- (Zn1– yMn y)2As2 studied by soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Phys Rev B, 2015, 92, 235120 [16] Guo S, Man H, Ding C, et al. Ba(Zn,Co)2As2: A diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with n-type carriers and isostructural to 122 iron-based superconductors. Phys Rev B, 2019, 99, 155201 [17] Gu B, Maekawa S. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Phys Rev B, 2016, 94, 155202 [18] Gu B, Maekawa S. New p- and n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors: Cr-doped BaZn2As2. AIP Adv, 2017, 7, 055805 [19] Gu B, Bulut N, Maekawa S. Crystal structure effect on the ferromagnetic correlations in ZnO with magnetic impurities. J Appl Phys, 2008, 104, 103906 [20] Ohe J, Tomoda Y, Bulut N, et al. Combined approach of density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo method to electron correlation in dilute magnetic semiconductors. J Phys Soc Jpn, 2009, 78, 083703 [21] Gu B, Bulut, Ziman N T, et al. Possible d0 ferromagnetism in MgO doped with nitrogen. Phys Rev B, 2009, 79, 024407 [22] Ichimura M, Tanikawa K, Takahashi S, et al. Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology. Edited by S Ishioka, K Fujikawa. Singapore: World Scientific, 2006, 183 [23] Bulut N, Tanikawa K, Takahashi S, et al. Long-range ferromagnetic correlations between Anderson impurities in a semiconductor host: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Phys Rev B, 2007, 76, 045220 [24] Tomoda Y, Bulut N, Maekawa S. Inter-impurity and impurity-host magnetic correlations in semiconductors with low-density transition-metal impurities. Physica B, 2009, 404, 1159 [25] Huang B, Clark G, Navarro-Moratalla E, et al. Layer-dependent ferromagnetism in a van der Waals crystal down to the monolayer limit. Nature, 2017, 546, 270 [26] Gong C, Li L, Li Z, et al. Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals. Nature, 2017, 546, 265 [27] Bonilla M, Kolekar S, Ma Y, et al. Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism in VSe2 monolayers on van der Waals substrates. Nat Nanotechnol, 2018, 13, 289 [28] O’Hara D J, Zhu T, Trout A H, et al. Room temperature intrinsic ferromagnetism in epitaxial manganese selenide films in the monolayer limit. Nano Lett, 2018, 18, 3125 [29] Hohenberg P, Kohn W. Inhomogeneous electron gas. Phys Rev, 1964, 136, B864 [30] Kohn W, Sham L J. Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects. Phys Rev, 1965, 140, A1133 [31] Hirsch J E, Fye R M. Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals. Phys Rev Lett, 1986, 56, 2521 [32] Gu B, Gan J Y, Bulut N, et al. Quantum renormalization of the spin Hall effect. Phys Rev Lett, 2010, 105, 086401 [33] Gu B, Sugai I, Ziman T, et al. Surface-assisted spin Hall effect in Au films with Pt impurities. Phys Rev Lett, 2010, 105, 216401 [34] Xu Z, Gu B, Mori M, et al. Sign change of the spin Hall effect due to electron correlation in nonmagnetic CuIr alloys. Phys Rev Lett, 2015, 114, 017202 [35] Haldane F D M, Anderson P W. Simple model of multiple charge states of transition-metal impurities in semiconductors. Phys Rev B, 1976, 13, 2553 [36] Blaha P, Schwart K, Hadsen G K H, et al. WIEN2K, an augmented plane wave plus local orbitals program for calculating crystal properties. Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, 2001 [37] Tran F, Blaha P. Implementation of screened hybrid functionals based on the Yukawa potential within the LAPW basis set. Phys Rev B, 2011, 83, 235118 [38] Shein I R, Ivanovskii A L. Elastic, electronic properties and intra-atomic bonding in orthorhombic and tetragonal polymorphs of BaZn2As2 from first-principles calculations. J Alloys Compd, 2014, 583, 100 [39] Dong X J, You J Y, Gu B, et al. Strain-induced room-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors with large anomalous Hall conductivity in two-dimensional Cr2Ge2Se6. Phys Rev Appl, 2019, 12, 014020 [40] You J Y, Zhang Z, Gu B, et al. Two-dimensional room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors with quantum anomalous Hall effect. arXiv: 1904.11357 [41] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 108, 192401 [42] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. A new class of ferromagnetic semiconductors with high Curie temperatures. arXiv: 1706.00735 [43] Kudrin A V, Danilov Y A, Lesnikov V P, et al. High-temperature intrinsic ferromagnetism in the (In,Fe)Sb semiconductor. J Appl Phys, 2017, 122, 183901 [44] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. Electrical control of ferromagnetism in the n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)Sb with high Curie temperature. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 122409 [45] Burch K S, Mandrus D, Park J G. Magnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. Nature, 2018, 563, 47
Fig. 1.  (Color online) Schematic pictures of magnetic semiconductors with (a) wide band gaps and (b) narrow band gaps. The band gap is $E_{\rm g}$. The top of valence band (VB) is dominated by p orbitals, and the bottom of conduction band (CB) is dominated by s orbitals. For the impurity with d orbitals, $\epsilon_{d}$ is impurity level of d orbitals, and $U$ is the on-site Coulomb interaction. Impurity bound state (IBS) is also developed due to the doping of impurity into the host. The density of state (DOS) as a function of energy, and the magnetic correlation $\langle M_1^zM_2^z\rangle$ between two impurities as a function of the chemical potential $\mu$ are depicted. (a) Due to strong mixing between the impurity and the VB, the position of the IBS $\omega_{\rm{IBS}}$ (arrow) is close to the top of the VB. Due to weak mixing between the impurity and the CB, usually no IBS appears below the bottom of the CB[1921]. Thus, we have 0 $\lesssim$ $\omega_{\rm{IBS}} \ll E_{\rm g}$ for the wide band gap case. By the condition $\mu \sim \omega_{\rm{IBS}}$, positive (FM coupling) $\langle M_1^zM_2^z\rangle$ can develop[2224]. For p-type carriers ($\mu\sim 0$), ferromagnetic coupling can be obtained as the condition $\mu$ $\sim$ $\omega_{\rm{IBS}}$ can be satisfied. For n-type carriers ($\mu \sim E_{\rm g}$), no magnetic coupling is obtained between impurities because the condition $\mu \sim \omega_{\rm{IBS}}$ cannot be satisfied[1921]. (b) Case for narrow band gap $E_{\rm g}$. By choosing suitable host semiconductors and impurities, the condition 0 $\lesssim$ $\omega_{\rm{IBS}}$ $\lesssim$ $E_{\rm g}$ can be obtained. For both p-type and n-type carriers, ferromagnetic coupling can be obtained because the condition $\mu$ $\sim$ $\omega_{\rm{IBS}}$ is satisfied.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) Band structure of the ZnO host with wurtzite, zincblende, and rocksalt crystal structures. Adapted from Ref. [19].

Fig. 3.  (Color online) For Mn impurity in ZnO, hybridization parameter $V_{\xi\alpha }({k})$ of a Mn $\xi$ orbital with the valence bands and the conduction bands. Adapted from Ref. [19].

Fig. 4.  (Color online) For Mn impurity in ZnO, square of the magnetic moment at the impurity site $\langle(M^z)^2\rangle$ as a function of the chemical potential $\mu$. The top of valence is energy zero, and the bottom of the conduction band is noted as vertical dashed lines. Adapted from Ref. [19].

Fig. 5.  (Color online) For Mn impurity in ZnO, impurity-impurity magnetic correlation function $\langle M^z_{1}M^z_{2}\rangle$ as a functino of distance $R$ between two impurities for the wurtzite, zincblende, and rocksalt structures. $a$ is lattice constant. Adapted from Ref. [19].

Fig. 6.  (Color online) For N impurity in MgO, host band and hybridization. (a) MgO bands structure, where an direct band gap of 7.5 eV was obtained. Hybridization between 2${p}$ orbitals of N and (b) valence bands and (c) conduction bands of MgO. Adapted from Ref. [21].

Fig. 7.  (Color online) For N impurity in MgO, square of magnetic moment $\langle(M_{\xi}^z)^2\rangle$ as a function of chemical potential $\mu$. Adapted from Ref. [21].

Fig. 8.  (Color online) For N impurity in MgO, impurity-impurity magnetic correlation $\langle M_{1\xi}^zM_{2\xi}^z\rangle$ as a function of distance $R$, for the impurity level (a) $\epsilon_{p}$ = –$1.5$ eV and (b) $\epsilon_{p}$ = –$0.5$ eV. Adapted from Ref. [21].

Fig. 9.  (Color online) For Mn impurity in BaZn2As2, host band and impurity-host hybridization. (a) Energy bands off host BaZn2As2. Band gap of 0.2 eV was obtained by DFT calculations, consistent with experiment[11]. The hybridization parameter between the 3d orbitals of Mn and (b) valence bands and (c) conduction bands of BaZn2As2. Adapted from Ref. [17].

Fig. 10.  (Color online) For Mn impurity in BaZn$_2$As$_2$, chemical potential $\mu$ dependence of (a) impurity occupation number $\langle n_{\xi}\rangle$ of $\xi$, and (b) magnetic correlation $\langle M_{1\xi}^zM_{2\xi}^z\rangle$ between impurities of the first-nearest neighbor. The band gap of 0.2 eV is noted by dash lines. Adapted from Ref. [17].

Fig. 11.  (Color online) For Mn impurities in BaZn$_2$As$_2$, magnetic correlation $\langle M_{1\xi}^zM_{2\xi}^z\rangle$ as a function of distance $R$. (a) Chemical potential is set as $\mu$ = –0.3 eV to model p-type case. (b) It is set as $\mu$ = 0.15 eV for n-type case. The first, second, and third nearest neighbors of $R$ are noted. Adapted from Ref. [17].

Fig. 12.  (Color online) Cr impurity versus Mn impurity in host BaZn$_2$As$_2$. Chemical potential $\mu$ dependence of (a) impurity occupation number $\langle n_{\xi}\rangle$, and (b) magnetic correlation $\langle M_{1\xi}^zM_{2\xi}^z\rangle$ between impurities of the 1st nearest neighbor. Adapted from Ref. [18].

Fig. 13.  (Color online) For Cr impurity in BaZn$_2$As$_2$, magnetic correlation $\langle M_{1\xi}^zM_{2\xi}^z\rangle$ as a function of the distance $R$. (a) chemical potential is set as $\mu$ = –0.1 eV to model p-type case. (b) It is set as $\mu$ = 0.15 eV for n-type case. The first, second, and third nearest neighbors of $R$ are noted. Adapted from Ref. [18].

Fig. 14.  (Color online) Crystal structure of two-dimensional Cr$_2$Ge$_2$Se$_6$.

Fig. 15.  (Color online) Electron band structure of two-dimensional Cr$_2$Ge$_2$Se$_6$, obtained by the density functional theory calculations. Adapted from Ref. [39].

Fig. 16.  (Color online) For two-dimensional Cr$_2$Ge$_2$Se$_6$ with different tensile strains, the normalized magnetization as a function temperature. Adapted from Ref. [39].

Fig. 17.  (Color online) Crystal structure of two-dimensional PtBr$_3$.

Fig. 18.  (Color online) The band structure of two-dimensional PdBr$_3$, where Chern number C of the nontrivial band near Fermi energy $E_{\rm F}$ is indicated, and the band gap is $E_{\rm g}$ = 28.1 meV. The result is obtained by the density functional theory calculation. Adapted from Ref. [40].

Fig. 19.  (Color online) For two-dimensional PtBr$_3$,temperature dependence of the normalized magnetic moment obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation and the density functional theory calculation. Adapted from Ref. [40].

 [1] Maekawa S. Concepts in spin electronics. Oxford University Press, 2006 [2] Maekawa S, Valenzuela S O, Saitoh E, et al. Spin current. Oxford University Press, 2012 [3] Kenney D, Norman C. What don’t we know. Science, 2005, 309, 75 [4] Ohno H. Making nonmagnetic semiconductors ferromagnetic. Science, 1998, 281, 951 [5] Dietl T. A ten-year perspective on dilute magnetic semiconductors and oxides. Nat Mater, 2010, 9, 965 doi: 10.1038/nmat2898 [6] Chen L, Yang X, Yang F, et al. Enhancing the Curie temperature of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As to 200 K via nanostructure engineering. Nano Lett, 2011, 11, 2584 [7] Masek J, Kudrnovsky J, Maca F, et al. Dilute moment n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)As. Phys Rev Lett, 2007, 98, 067202 [8] Deng Z, Jin C Q, Liu Q Q, et al. Li(Zn,Mn)As as a new generation ferromagnet based on a I–II–V semiconductor. Nat Commun, 2011, 2, 422 [9] Deng Z, Zhao K, Gu B, et al. Diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,Mn)P with decoupled charge and spin doping. Phys Rev B, 2013, 88, 081203 [10] Ding C, Man H, Qin C, et al. (La1– xBa x)(Zn1– xMn x)AsO: A two-dimensional 1111-type diluted magnetic semiconductor in bulk form. Phys Rev B, 2013, 88, 041102 [11] Zhao K, Deng Z, Wang X C, et al. New diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with Curie temperature up to 180 K and isostructural to the 122 iron-based superconductors. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 1442 [12] Zhao K, Chen B J, Zhao G Q, et al. Ferromagnetism at 230 K in (Ba0.7K0.3)(Zn0.85Mn0.15)2As2 diluted magnetic semiconductor. Chin Sci Bull, 2014, 59, 2524 [13] Glasbrenner J K, Zutic I, Mazin I I. Theory of Mn-doped II–II–V semiconductors. Phys Rev B, 2014, 90, 140403 [14] Suzuki H, Zhao K, Shibata G, et al. Photoemission and X-ray absorption studies of the isostructural to Fe-based superconductors diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1– xK x(Zn1– yMn y)2As2. Phys Rev B, 2015, 91, 140401 [15] Suzuki H, Zhao G Q, Zhao K, et al. Fermi surfaces and p-d hybridization in the diluted magnetic semiconductor Ba1– xK x- (Zn1– yMn y)2As2 studied by soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Phys Rev B, 2015, 92, 235120 [16] Guo S, Man H, Ding C, et al. Ba(Zn,Co)2As2: A diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with n-type carriers and isostructural to 122 iron-based superconductors. Phys Rev B, 2019, 99, 155201 [17] Gu B, Maekawa S. Diluted magnetic semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Phys Rev B, 2016, 94, 155202 [18] Gu B, Maekawa S. New p- and n-type ferromagnetic semiconductors: Cr-doped BaZn2As2. AIP Adv, 2017, 7, 055805 [19] Gu B, Bulut N, Maekawa S. Crystal structure effect on the ferromagnetic correlations in ZnO with magnetic impurities. J Appl Phys, 2008, 104, 103906 [20] Ohe J, Tomoda Y, Bulut N, et al. Combined approach of density functional theory and quantum Monte Carlo method to electron correlation in dilute magnetic semiconductors. J Phys Soc Jpn, 2009, 78, 083703 [21] Gu B, Bulut, Ziman N T, et al. Possible d0 ferromagnetism in MgO doped with nitrogen. Phys Rev B, 2009, 79, 024407 [22] Ichimura M, Tanikawa K, Takahashi S, et al. Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology. Edited by S Ishioka, K Fujikawa. Singapore: World Scientific, 2006, 183 [23] Bulut N, Tanikawa K, Takahashi S, et al. Long-range ferromagnetic correlations between Anderson impurities in a semiconductor host: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Phys Rev B, 2007, 76, 045220 [24] Tomoda Y, Bulut N, Maekawa S. Inter-impurity and impurity-host magnetic correlations in semiconductors with low-density transition-metal impurities. Physica B, 2009, 404, 1159 [25] Huang B, Clark G, Navarro-Moratalla E, et al. Layer-dependent ferromagnetism in a van der Waals crystal down to the monolayer limit. Nature, 2017, 546, 270 [26] Gong C, Li L, Li Z, et al. Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals. Nature, 2017, 546, 265 [27] Bonilla M, Kolekar S, Ma Y, et al. Strong room-temperature ferromagnetism in VSe2 monolayers on van der Waals substrates. Nat Nanotechnol, 2018, 13, 289 [28] O’Hara D J, Zhu T, Trout A H, et al. Room temperature intrinsic ferromagnetism in epitaxial manganese selenide films in the monolayer limit. Nano Lett, 2018, 18, 3125 [29] Hohenberg P, Kohn W. Inhomogeneous electron gas. Phys Rev, 1964, 136, B864 [30] Kohn W, Sham L J. Self-consistent equations including exchange and correlation effects. Phys Rev, 1965, 140, A1133 [31] Hirsch J E, Fye R M. Monte Carlo method for magnetic impurities in metals. Phys Rev Lett, 1986, 56, 2521 [32] Gu B, Gan J Y, Bulut N, et al. Quantum renormalization of the spin Hall effect. Phys Rev Lett, 2010, 105, 086401 [33] Gu B, Sugai I, Ziman T, et al. Surface-assisted spin Hall effect in Au films with Pt impurities. Phys Rev Lett, 2010, 105, 216401 [34] Xu Z, Gu B, Mori M, et al. Sign change of the spin Hall effect due to electron correlation in nonmagnetic CuIr alloys. Phys Rev Lett, 2015, 114, 017202 [35] Haldane F D M, Anderson P W. Simple model of multiple charge states of transition-metal impurities in semiconductors. Phys Rev B, 1976, 13, 2553 [36] Blaha P, Schwart K, Hadsen G K H, et al. WIEN2K, an augmented plane wave plus local orbitals program for calculating crystal properties. Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, 2001 [37] Tran F, Blaha P. Implementation of screened hybrid functionals based on the Yukawa potential within the LAPW basis set. Phys Rev B, 2011, 83, 235118 [38] Shein I R, Ivanovskii A L. Elastic, electronic properties and intra-atomic bonding in orthorhombic and tetragonal polymorphs of BaZn2As2 from first-principles calculations. J Alloys Compd, 2014, 583, 100 [39] Dong X J, You J Y, Gu B, et al. Strain-induced room-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors with large anomalous Hall conductivity in two-dimensional Cr2Ge2Se6. Phys Rev Appl, 2019, 12, 014020 [40] You J Y, Zhang Z, Gu B, et al. Two-dimensional room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors with quantum anomalous Hall effect. arXiv: 1904.11357 [41] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. High-temperature ferromagnetism in heavily Fe-doped ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Fe)Sb. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 108, 192401 [42] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. A new class of ferromagnetic semiconductors with high Curie temperatures. arXiv: 1706.00735 [43] Kudrin A V, Danilov Y A, Lesnikov V P, et al. High-temperature intrinsic ferromagnetism in the (In,Fe)Sb semiconductor. J Appl Phys, 2017, 122, 183901 [44] Tu N T, Hai P N, Anh L D, et al. Electrical control of ferromagnetism in the n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)Sb with high Curie temperature. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 122409 [45] Burch K S, Mandrus D, Park J G. Magnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals materials. Nature, 2018, 563, 47

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Received: 05 June 2019 Revised: 14 June 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 10 July 2019Uncorrected proof: 10 July 2019Published: 09 August 2019

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Bo Gu. High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(8): 081504. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/081504 B Gu, High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(8): 081504. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/081504.Export: BibTex EndNote
 Citation: Bo Gu. High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(8): 081504. B Gu, High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(8): 081504. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/081504. Export: BibTex EndNote

# High temperature magnetic semiconductors: narrow band gaps and two-dimensional systems

##### doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/8/081504
• Author Bio:

Bo Gu gubo@ucas.ac.cn

• Corresponding author: gubo@ucas.ac.cn