J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 1 > Article Number: 012302

Realization of high-performance tri-layer graphene saturable absorber mirror fabricated via a one-step transfer process

Cheng Jiang 1, 5, , Xu Wang 1, , Jian Liu 1, , Jiqiang Ning 2, , Changcheng Zheng 3, , Xiaohui Li 4, and Ziyang Zhang 1, ,

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Abstract: Graphene, as a saturable absorber (SA), has attracted much attention for its application in ultrashort pulse fiber lasers due to its ultrafast interband carrier relaxation and ultra-broadband wavelength operation. Nevertheless, during the stacking process of monolayer graphene layer, the induced nonuniform contact at the interface of graphene layers deteriorate the device performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of graphene saturable absorber mirrors (SAMs) via a one-step transfer process and the realization of the much enlarged modulation depth and the much reduced nonsaturable loss with tri-layer graphene (TLG) than single-layer graphene (SLG) due to the improved uniform contact at the interface. Moreover, the operation of 1550 nm mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser with the TLG SAM exhibits excellent output characteristics of the maximum output power of 9.9 mW, a slope efficiency of 2.4% and a pulse width of 714 fs. Our findings are expected to pave the way toward high-performance ultrashort pulse fiber lasers based on graphene SAs.

Key words: grapheneSAMsmode-locked lasersnonlinear absorption characteristics

Abstract: Graphene, as a saturable absorber (SA), has attracted much attention for its application in ultrashort pulse fiber lasers due to its ultrafast interband carrier relaxation and ultra-broadband wavelength operation. Nevertheless, during the stacking process of monolayer graphene layer, the induced nonuniform contact at the interface of graphene layers deteriorate the device performance. Herein, we report the fabrication of graphene saturable absorber mirrors (SAMs) via a one-step transfer process and the realization of the much enlarged modulation depth and the much reduced nonsaturable loss with tri-layer graphene (TLG) than single-layer graphene (SLG) due to the improved uniform contact at the interface. Moreover, the operation of 1550 nm mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser with the TLG SAM exhibits excellent output characteristics of the maximum output power of 9.9 mW, a slope efficiency of 2.4% and a pulse width of 714 fs. Our findings are expected to pave the way toward high-performance ultrashort pulse fiber lasers based on graphene SAs.

Key words: grapheneSAMsmode-locked lasersnonlinear absorption characteristics



References:

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Zhang H, Tang D Y, Zhao L M, et al. Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene. Opt Express, 2009, 17(20), 17630

[2]

Sun Z P, Hasan T, Torrisi F, et al. Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(2), 803

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Liu J J, Liu J, Guo Z N, et al. Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:SrF2 laser with a black phosphorus absorber in the midinfrared region. Opt Express, 2016, 24(26), 30289

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Lan K Y, Ker P J, Abas A F, et al. Long-term stability and sustainability evaluation for mode-locked fiber laser with graphene/PMMA saturable. Opt Commun, 2019, 435, 251

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Zhao L M, Tang D Y, Wu X A, et al. Dissipative soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser with an invisible intracavity bandpass filter. Opt Lett, 2010, 35(16), 2756

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Lu L, Liang Z M, Wu L M, et al. Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability. Laser Photonics Rev, 2018, 12(1), 1700221

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Wang X, Zhu Y J, Jiang C, et al. InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber for controllable dual-wavelength passively Q-switched fiber laser. Opt Express, 2019, 27(15), 20649

[8]

Sotor J, Sobon G, Tarka J, et al. Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped mode-locked laser enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber. Opt Express, 2014, 22(5), 5536

[9]

Martinez A, Fuse K, Xu B, et al. Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive modelocked lasing. Opt Express, 2010, 18(22), 23054

[10]

Zhang Z Y, Oehler A E H, Resan B, et al. 1.55 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dots and high repetition rate quantum dot SESAM mode-locked laser. Sci Rep-UK, 2012, 2, 477

[11]

Wang Z T, Chen Y, Zhao C J, et al. Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. IEEE Photonics J, 2012, 4(3), 869

[12]

Ashoori V, Shayganmanesh M. Analytical thermal modeling of graphene-clad microfiber as a saturable absorber in ultrafast fiber lasers. Appl Phys B, 2019, 125(3), 40

[13]

Zhang R L, Wang J, Liao M S, et al. Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on a graphene saturable without additional tuning element. IEEE Photonics J, 2019, 11(1), 1500310

[14]

Martinez A, Sun Z P. Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fiber lasers. Nat Photonics, 2013, 7(11), 842

[15]

Zhang H, Tang D Y, Knize R J, et al. Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96(11), 111112

[16]

Ma J, Xie G Q, P Lv P, et al. Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength. Opt Lett, 2012, 37(11), 2085

[17]

Hader J, Yang H J, Scheller M, et al. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene. J Appl Phys, 2016, 119(5), 053102

[18]

Bao Q L, Zhang H, Ni Z H, et al. Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser. Nano Res, 2011, 4(3), 297

[19]

Bao Q L, Zhang H, Wang Y, et al. Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers. Adv Funct Mater, 2009, 19(19), 3077

[20]

Ferrari A C. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun, 2007, 143(2), 47

[21]

Dresselhaus M S, Jorio A, Hofmann M. Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(3), 751

[22]

Zhang X, Qiao X F, Shi W, et al. Phonon and Raman scattering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides from monolayer, multilayer to bulk material. Chem Soc Rev, 2015, 44(9), 2757

[23]

Botti S, Rufoloni A, Vannozzi A, et al. Investigation of CVD grown graphene topography. AIP Conf Proc, 2018, 1990

[24]

Li X H, Wu K, Sun Z P, et al. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Sci Rep-UK, 2016, 6, 25266

[25]

Luo Z Q, Li Y Y, Zhong M, et al. Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser. Photonics Res, 2015, 3(3), A79

[26]

Li X H, Yu X C, Sun Z P, et al. High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction. Sci Rep-UK, 2015, 5, 16624

[1]

Zhang H, Tang D Y, Zhao L M, et al. Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene. Opt Express, 2009, 17(20), 17630

[2]

Sun Z P, Hasan T, Torrisi F, et al. Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser. ACS Nano, 2010, 4(2), 803

[3]

Liu J J, Liu J, Guo Z N, et al. Dual-wavelength Q-switched Er:SrF2 laser with a black phosphorus absorber in the midinfrared region. Opt Express, 2016, 24(26), 30289

[4]

Lan K Y, Ker P J, Abas A F, et al. Long-term stability and sustainability evaluation for mode-locked fiber laser with graphene/PMMA saturable. Opt Commun, 2019, 435, 251

[5]

Zhao L M, Tang D Y, Wu X A, et al. Dissipative soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser with an invisible intracavity bandpass filter. Opt Lett, 2010, 35(16), 2756

[6]

Lu L, Liang Z M, Wu L M, et al. Few-layer bismuthene: sonochemical exfoliation, nonlinear optics and applications for ultrafast photonics with enhanced stability. Laser Photonics Rev, 2018, 12(1), 1700221

[7]

Wang X, Zhu Y J, Jiang C, et al. InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor saturable absorber for controllable dual-wavelength passively Q-switched fiber laser. Opt Express, 2019, 27(15), 20649

[8]

Sotor J, Sobon G, Tarka J, et al. Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped mode-locked laser enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber. Opt Express, 2014, 22(5), 5536

[9]

Martinez A, Fuse K, Xu B, et al. Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive modelocked lasing. Opt Express, 2010, 18(22), 23054

[10]

Zhang Z Y, Oehler A E H, Resan B, et al. 1.55 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dots and high repetition rate quantum dot SESAM mode-locked laser. Sci Rep-UK, 2012, 2, 477

[11]

Wang Z T, Chen Y, Zhao C J, et al. Switchable dual-wavelength synchronously Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. IEEE Photonics J, 2012, 4(3), 869

[12]

Ashoori V, Shayganmanesh M. Analytical thermal modeling of graphene-clad microfiber as a saturable absorber in ultrafast fiber lasers. Appl Phys B, 2019, 125(3), 40

[13]

Zhang R L, Wang J, Liao M S, et al. Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on a graphene saturable without additional tuning element. IEEE Photonics J, 2019, 11(1), 1500310

[14]

Martinez A, Sun Z P. Nanotube and graphene saturable absorbers for fiber lasers. Nat Photonics, 2013, 7(11), 842

[15]

Zhang H, Tang D Y, Knize R J, et al. Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 96(11), 111112

[16]

Ma J, Xie G Q, P Lv P, et al. Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength. Opt Lett, 2012, 37(11), 2085

[17]

Hader J, Yang H J, Scheller M, et al. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene. J Appl Phys, 2016, 119(5), 053102

[18]

Bao Q L, Zhang H, Ni Z H, et al. Monolayer graphene as a saturable absorber in a mode-locked laser. Nano Res, 2011, 4(3), 297

[19]

Bao Q L, Zhang H, Wang Y, et al. Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers. Adv Funct Mater, 2009, 19(19), 3077

[20]

Ferrari A C. Raman spectroscopy of graphene and graphite: Disorder, electron-phonon coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects. Solid State Commun, 2007, 143(2), 47

[21]

Dresselhaus M S, Jorio A, Hofmann M. Perspectives on carbon nanotubes and graphene Raman spectroscopy. Nano Lett, 2010, 10(3), 751

[22]

Zhang X, Qiao X F, Shi W, et al. Phonon and Raman scattering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides from monolayer, multilayer to bulk material. Chem Soc Rev, 2015, 44(9), 2757

[23]

Botti S, Rufoloni A, Vannozzi A, et al. Investigation of CVD grown graphene topography. AIP Conf Proc, 2018, 1990

[24]

Li X H, Wu K, Sun Z P, et al. Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Sci Rep-UK, 2016, 6, 25266

[25]

Luo Z Q, Li Y Y, Zhong M, et al. Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser. Photonics Res, 2015, 3(3), A79

[26]

Li X H, Yu X C, Sun Z P, et al. High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction. Sci Rep-UK, 2015, 5, 16624

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C Jiang, X Wang, J Liu, J Q Ning, C C Zheng, X H Li, Z Y Zhang, Realization of high-performance tri-layer graphene saturable absorber mirror fabricated via a one-step transfer process[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(1): 012302. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/1/012302.

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Manuscript received: 19 September 2019 Manuscript revised: 13 November 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 26 November 2019 Uncorrected proof: 17 December 2019 Published: 02 January 2020

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