J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 10 > Article Number: 102802

Investigation of current collapse and recovery time due to deep level defect traps in β-Ga2O3 HEMT

R. Singh 1, , T. R. Lenka 1, , , R. T. Velpula 2, , B. Jain 2, , H. Q. T. Bui 2, and H. P. T. Nguyen 2,

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Abstract: In this paper, drain current transient characteristics of β-Ga2O3 high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) are studied to access current collapse and recovery time due to dynamic population and de-population of deep level traps and interface traps. An approximately 10 min, and 1 h of recovery time to steady-state drain current value is measured under 1 ms of stress on the gate and drain electrodes due to iron (Fe)–doped β-Ga2O3 substrate and germanium (Ge)–doped β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layer respectively. On-state current lag is more severe due to widely reported defect trap EC – 0.82 eV over EC – 0.78 eV, −0.75 eV present in Iron (Fe)-doped β-Ga2O3 bulk crystals. A negligible amount of current degradation is observed in the latter case due to the trap level at EC – 0.98 eV. It is found that occupancy of ionized trap density varied mostly under the gate and gate–source area. This investigation of reversible current collapse phenomenon and assessment of recovery time in β-Ga2O3 HEMT is carried out through 2D device simulations using appropriate velocity and charge transport models. This work can further help in the proper characterization of β-Ga2O3 devices to understand temporary and permanent device degradation.

Key words: β-Ga2O3current collapsedegradationHEMTrecovery timetrapstrapping effects

Abstract: In this paper, drain current transient characteristics of β-Ga2O3 high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) are studied to access current collapse and recovery time due to dynamic population and de-population of deep level traps and interface traps. An approximately 10 min, and 1 h of recovery time to steady-state drain current value is measured under 1 ms of stress on the gate and drain electrodes due to iron (Fe)–doped β-Ga2O3 substrate and germanium (Ge)–doped β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layer respectively. On-state current lag is more severe due to widely reported defect trap EC – 0.82 eV over EC – 0.78 eV, −0.75 eV present in Iron (Fe)-doped β-Ga2O3 bulk crystals. A negligible amount of current degradation is observed in the latter case due to the trap level at EC – 0.98 eV. It is found that occupancy of ionized trap density varied mostly under the gate and gate–source area. This investigation of reversible current collapse phenomenon and assessment of recovery time in β-Ga2O3 HEMT is carried out through 2D device simulations using appropriate velocity and charge transport models. This work can further help in the proper characterization of β-Ga2O3 devices to understand temporary and permanent device degradation.

Key words: β-Ga2O3current collapsedegradationHEMTrecovery timetrapstrapping effects



References:

[1]

He H Y, Orlando R, Blanco M A, et al. First-principles study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Ga2O3 in its monoclinic and hexagonal phases. Phys Rev B, 2006, 74, 195123

[2]

Higashiwaki M, Sasaki K, Kuramata A, et al. Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors on single-crystal β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 100, 013504

[3]

Ghosh K, Singisetti U. Ab initio velocity-field curves in monoclinic β-Ga2O3. J Appl Phys, 2017, 122, 035702

[4]

Varley J B, Weber J R, Janotti A, et al. Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 97, 142106

[5]

Chikoidze E, Fellous A, Perez-Tomas A, et al. P-type β-gallium oxide: A new perspective for power and optoelectronic devices. Mater Today Phys, 2017, 3, 118

[6]

Kyrtsos A, Matsubara M, Bellotti E. On the feasibility of p-type Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 032108

[7]

Tomm Y, Reiche P, Klimm D, et al. Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals. J Cryst Growth, 2000, 220, 510

[8]

Aida H, Nishiguchi K, Takeda H, et al. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2008, 47, 8506

[9]

Farzana E, Ahmadi E, Speck J S, et al. Deep level defects in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. J Appl Phys, 2018, 123, 161410

[10]

Zhang Z, Farzana E, Arehart A R, et al. Erratum: “Deep level defects throughout the bandgap of (010) β-Ga2O3 detected by optically and thermally stimulated defect spectroscopy” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052105 (2016)]. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 108, 079901

[11]

Irmscher K, Galazka Z, Pietsch M, et al. Electrical properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method. J Appl Phys, 2011, 110, 063720

[12]

Ingebrigtsen M E, Varley J B, Kuznetsov A Y, et al. Iron and intrinsic deep level states in Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 042104

[13]

Sasaki K, Higashiwaki M, Kuramata A, et al. Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diodes fabricated by using single-crystal β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2013, 34, 493

[14]

Krishnamoorthy S, Xia Z B, Bajaj S, et al. Delta-doped β-gallium oxide field-effect transistor. Appl Phys Express, 2017, 10, 051102

[15]

Zhou H, Maize K, Qiu G, et al. β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistors with drain currents exceeding 1.5 A/mm and their self-heating effect. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 092102

[16]

Oshima T, Kato Y, Kawano N, et al. Carrier confinement observed at modulation-doped β-(Al xGa1– x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterojunction interface. Appl Phys Express, 2017, 10, 035701

[17]

Zhang Y W, Neal A, Xia Z B, et al. Demonstration of high mobility and quantum transport in modulation-doped β-(Al xGa1 – x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterostructures. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 173502

[18]

McGlone J F, Xia Z B, Zhang Y W, et al. Trapping effects in Si δ-doped β-Ga2O3 MESFETs on an Fe-doped β-Ga2O3 substrate. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 1042

[19]

Polyakov A Y, Smirnov N B, Shchemerov I V, et al. Defect states determining dynamic trapping-detrapping in β-Ga2O3 field-effect transistors. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol, 2019, 8, Q3013

[20]

Sun H D, Torres Castanedo C G, Liu K K, et al. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 162105

[21]

Mock A, Korlacki R, Briley C, et al. Band-to-band transitions, selection rules, effective mass, and excitonic contributions in monoclinic β-Ga2O3. Phys Rev B, 2017, 96, 245205

[22]

Device simulation software, ATLAS user’s manual. Silvaco, Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2009

[23]

Lu Y, Yao H H, Li J, et al. AlN/β-Ga2O3 based HEMT: A potential pathway to ultimate high power device. arXiv: 1901.05111, 2019

[24]

Balaz D. Current collapse and device degradation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors. Ph D Dissertation, University of Glasgow, 2011

[1]

He H Y, Orlando R, Blanco M A, et al. First-principles study of the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Ga2O3 in its monoclinic and hexagonal phases. Phys Rev B, 2006, 74, 195123

[2]

Higashiwaki M, Sasaki K, Kuramata A, et al. Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) metal–semiconductor field-effect transistors on single-crystal β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 100, 013504

[3]

Ghosh K, Singisetti U. Ab initio velocity-field curves in monoclinic β-Ga2O3. J Appl Phys, 2017, 122, 035702

[4]

Varley J B, Weber J R, Janotti A, et al. Oxygen vacancies and donor impurities in β-Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 97, 142106

[5]

Chikoidze E, Fellous A, Perez-Tomas A, et al. P-type β-gallium oxide: A new perspective for power and optoelectronic devices. Mater Today Phys, 2017, 3, 118

[6]

Kyrtsos A, Matsubara M, Bellotti E. On the feasibility of p-type Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 032108

[7]

Tomm Y, Reiche P, Klimm D, et al. Czochralski grown Ga2O3 crystals. J Cryst Growth, 2000, 220, 510

[8]

Aida H, Nishiguchi K, Takeda H, et al. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2008, 47, 8506

[9]

Farzana E, Ahmadi E, Speck J S, et al. Deep level defects in Ge-doped (010) β-Ga2O3 layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. J Appl Phys, 2018, 123, 161410

[10]

Zhang Z, Farzana E, Arehart A R, et al. Erratum: “Deep level defects throughout the bandgap of (010) β-Ga2O3 detected by optically and thermally stimulated defect spectroscopy” [Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 052105 (2016)]. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 108, 079901

[11]

Irmscher K, Galazka Z, Pietsch M, et al. Electrical properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by the Czochralski method. J Appl Phys, 2011, 110, 063720

[12]

Ingebrigtsen M E, Varley J B, Kuznetsov A Y, et al. Iron and intrinsic deep level states in Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 042104

[13]

Sasaki K, Higashiwaki M, Kuramata A, et al. Ga2O3 Schottky barrier diodes fabricated by using single-crystal β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2013, 34, 493

[14]

Krishnamoorthy S, Xia Z B, Bajaj S, et al. Delta-doped β-gallium oxide field-effect transistor. Appl Phys Express, 2017, 10, 051102

[15]

Zhou H, Maize K, Qiu G, et al. β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistors with drain currents exceeding 1.5 A/mm and their self-heating effect. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 092102

[16]

Oshima T, Kato Y, Kawano N, et al. Carrier confinement observed at modulation-doped β-(Al xGa1– x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterojunction interface. Appl Phys Express, 2017, 10, 035701

[17]

Zhang Y W, Neal A, Xia Z B, et al. Demonstration of high mobility and quantum transport in modulation-doped β-(Al xGa1 – x)2O3/Ga2O3 heterostructures. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 173502

[18]

McGlone J F, Xia Z B, Zhang Y W, et al. Trapping effects in Si δ-doped β-Ga2O3 MESFETs on an Fe-doped β-Ga2O3 substrate. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 1042

[19]

Polyakov A Y, Smirnov N B, Shchemerov I V, et al. Defect states determining dynamic trapping-detrapping in β-Ga2O3 field-effect transistors. ECS J Solid State Sci Technol, 2019, 8, Q3013

[20]

Sun H D, Torres Castanedo C G, Liu K K, et al. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 111, 162105

[21]

Mock A, Korlacki R, Briley C, et al. Band-to-band transitions, selection rules, effective mass, and excitonic contributions in monoclinic β-Ga2O3. Phys Rev B, 2017, 96, 245205

[22]

Device simulation software, ATLAS user’s manual. Silvaco, Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2009

[23]

Lu Y, Yao H H, Li J, et al. AlN/β-Ga2O3 based HEMT: A potential pathway to ultimate high power device. arXiv: 1901.05111, 2019

[24]

Balaz D. Current collapse and device degradation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors. Ph D Dissertation, University of Glasgow, 2011

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R Singh, T R Lenka, R T Velpula, B Jain, H Q T Bui, H P T Nguyen, Investigation of current collapse and recovery time due to deep level defect traps in β-Ga2O3 HEMT[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(10): 102802. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/10/102802.

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History

Manuscript received: 12 February 2020 Manuscript revised: 27 May 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 28 June 2020 Uncorrected proof: 06 July 2020 Published: 01 October 2020

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