J. Semicond. > Volume 37 > Issue 9 > Article Number: 093001

Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seed layers on glass

R. Bansen , C. Ehlers , Th. Teubner and T. Boeck

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Abstract: The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics.

Key words: thin film solar cellmicrocrystalline Sisolution growthsteady-state liquid phase epitaxy (SSLPE)seed layer

Abstract: The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics.

Key words: thin film solar cellmicrocrystalline Sisolution growthsteady-state liquid phase epitaxy (SSLPE)seed layer



References:

[1]

Sonntag P, Haschke J, Kühnapfel S. Interdigitated back-contact heterojunction solar cell concept for liquid phase crystallized thin-film silicon on glass[J]. Prog Photovoltaics Res, 2016, 24: 716. doi: 10.1002/pip.v24.5

[2]

Huang J, Varlamov S, Dore J. Micro-structural defects in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass by solid-phase crystallisation and laser-induced liquid-phase crystallization[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2015, 132: 282. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.09.021

[3]

Gawlik A, Plentz J, Höger I. Multicrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on glass with epitaxially grown emitter prepared by a two-step laser crystallization process[J]. Phys Status Solidi, 2014, 212: 162.

[4]

Amkreutz D, Haschke J, Häring T. Conversion efficiency and process stability improvement of electron beam crystallized thin film silicon solar cells on glass[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2014, 123: 13. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2013.12.021

[5]

Bronger T, Wöbkenberg P H, Wördenweber J. Solution-based silicon in thin-film solar cells[J]. Adv Energy Mater, 2014, 4: 1301871. doi: 10.1002/aenm.201301871

[6]

Orhan J B, Monnard R, Vallat-Sauvain E. Nano-textured superstrates for thin film silicon solar cells: status and industrial challenges[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2015, 140: 344. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.04.027

[7]

Bansen R, Heimburger R, Schmidtbauer J. Crystalline silicon on glass by steady-state solution growth using indium as solvent[J]. Appl Phys A, 2015, 119: 1577. doi: 10.1007/s00339-015-9141-0

[8]

Bansen R, Heimburger R, Schmidtbauer J. Solution growth of crystalline Si on glass[J]. 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 2014: 1908.

[9]

McNeely J B, Hall R B, Barnett A M. Thin-film silicon crystal growth on low cost substrates[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1984, 70: 420. doi: 10.1016/0022-0248(84)90297-5

[10]

Teubner T, Heimburger R, Böttcher K. Equipment for low temperature steady-state growth of silicon from metallic solutions[J]. Cryst Growth Des, 2008, 8: 2484. doi: 10.1021/cg800120q

[11]

Klapper H, Rudolph P. Defect generation and interaction during crystal growth. Handbook of Crystal Growth. Volume Ⅱ, ed T Nishinaga, Elsevier, 2015: 1093

[12]

Capper P, Mauk M. Liquid phase epitaxy of electronic, optical and optoelectronic materials[J]. Wiley, 2007: 114.

[13]

Haberl B. Structural characterization of amorphous silicon[J]. PhD Dissertation, The Australian National University, 2010.

[1]

Sonntag P, Haschke J, Kühnapfel S. Interdigitated back-contact heterojunction solar cell concept for liquid phase crystallized thin-film silicon on glass[J]. Prog Photovoltaics Res, 2016, 24: 716. doi: 10.1002/pip.v24.5

[2]

Huang J, Varlamov S, Dore J. Micro-structural defects in polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass by solid-phase crystallisation and laser-induced liquid-phase crystallization[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2015, 132: 282. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.09.021

[3]

Gawlik A, Plentz J, Höger I. Multicrystalline silicon thin film solar cells on glass with epitaxially grown emitter prepared by a two-step laser crystallization process[J]. Phys Status Solidi, 2014, 212: 162.

[4]

Amkreutz D, Haschke J, Häring T. Conversion efficiency and process stability improvement of electron beam crystallized thin film silicon solar cells on glass[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2014, 123: 13. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2013.12.021

[5]

Bronger T, Wöbkenberg P H, Wördenweber J. Solution-based silicon in thin-film solar cells[J]. Adv Energy Mater, 2014, 4: 1301871. doi: 10.1002/aenm.201301871

[6]

Orhan J B, Monnard R, Vallat-Sauvain E. Nano-textured superstrates for thin film silicon solar cells: status and industrial challenges[J]. Sol Energy Mater Sol Cells, 2015, 140: 344. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.04.027

[7]

Bansen R, Heimburger R, Schmidtbauer J. Crystalline silicon on glass by steady-state solution growth using indium as solvent[J]. Appl Phys A, 2015, 119: 1577. doi: 10.1007/s00339-015-9141-0

[8]

Bansen R, Heimburger R, Schmidtbauer J. Solution growth of crystalline Si on glass[J]. 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 2014: 1908.

[9]

McNeely J B, Hall R B, Barnett A M. Thin-film silicon crystal growth on low cost substrates[J]. J Cryst Growth, 1984, 70: 420. doi: 10.1016/0022-0248(84)90297-5

[10]

Teubner T, Heimburger R, Böttcher K. Equipment for low temperature steady-state growth of silicon from metallic solutions[J]. Cryst Growth Des, 2008, 8: 2484. doi: 10.1021/cg800120q

[11]

Klapper H, Rudolph P. Defect generation and interaction during crystal growth. Handbook of Crystal Growth. Volume Ⅱ, ed T Nishinaga, Elsevier, 2015: 1093

[12]

Capper P, Mauk M. Liquid phase epitaxy of electronic, optical and optoelectronic materials[J]. Wiley, 2007: 114.

[13]

Haberl B. Structural characterization of amorphous silicon[J]. PhD Dissertation, The Australian National University, 2010.

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R. Bansen, C. Ehlers, Th. Teubner, T. Boeck. Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seedlayers on glass[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(9): 093001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/9/093001.

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Manuscript received: 16 March 2016 Manuscript revised: 19 April 2016 Online: Published: 01 September 2016

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