J. Semicond. > Volume 40 > Issue 3 > Article Number: 032301

Influence of light absorption on the metallic nanotextured reflectors of GaN-based light emitting diodes

Xuejiao Sun 1, 2, , Zhiguo Yu 1, , , Ning Zhang 1, 2, , Lei Liu 1, 2, , Junxi Wang 1, 2, , Jinmin Li 1, 2, and Yun Zhang 1, 2,

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Abstract: Metallic nanotextured reflectors have been widely used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance the light extraction efficiency. However, the light absorption loss for the metallic reflectors with nanotexture structure is often neglected. Here, the influence of absorption loss of metallic nanotextured reflectors on the LED optoelectronic properties were studied. Two commonly used metal reflectors Ag and Al were applied to green GaN-based LEDs. By applying a Ag nanotextured reflector, the light output power of the LEDs was enhanced by 78% due to the improved light extraction. For an Al nanotextured reflector, however, only a 6% enhancement of the light output power was achieved. By analyzing the metal absorption using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and the metal reflectivity spectrum, it is shown that the surface plasmon (SP) intrinsic absorption of metallic reflectors with nanotexture structure play an important role. This finding will aid the design of the high-performance metal nanotextured reflectors and optoelectronics devices.

Key words: metallic nanotextured reflectorsurface plasmonmetal lossGaNlight emitting diodes

Abstract: Metallic nanotextured reflectors have been widely used in light emitting diodes (LEDs) to enhance the light extraction efficiency. However, the light absorption loss for the metallic reflectors with nanotexture structure is often neglected. Here, the influence of absorption loss of metallic nanotextured reflectors on the LED optoelectronic properties were studied. Two commonly used metal reflectors Ag and Al were applied to green GaN-based LEDs. By applying a Ag nanotextured reflector, the light output power of the LEDs was enhanced by 78% due to the improved light extraction. For an Al nanotextured reflector, however, only a 6% enhancement of the light output power was achieved. By analyzing the metal absorption using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and the metal reflectivity spectrum, it is shown that the surface plasmon (SP) intrinsic absorption of metallic reflectors with nanotexture structure play an important role. This finding will aid the design of the high-performance metal nanotextured reflectors and optoelectronics devices.

Key words: metallic nanotextured reflectorsurface plasmonmetal lossGaNlight emitting diodes



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Fujii T, Gao Y, Sharma R, et al. Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening. Appl Phys Lett, 2004, 84 (6): 855

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[13]

Yin Z, Liu X, Yao H, et al. Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett, 2013, 25 (20): 1989.

[14]

Xi J Q, Luo H, Pasquale A J, et al. Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 2006, 18 (21-24): 2347.

[15]

Kim J Y, Kwon M K, Park I K, et al. Enhanced light extraction efficiency in flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with diffuse Ag reflector on nanotextured indium-tin oxide. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 93 (2): 021121.

[16]

Jeon J W, Yum W S, Oh S, et al. Nanostructure Ag dots for improving thermal stability of Ag reflector for GaN-based light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 101 (2): 021115.

[17]

Zhou S, Liu X, Gao Y, et al. Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts. Opt Express, 2017, 25 (22): 26615.

[18]

Lv J, Zheng C, Chen Q, et al. High power InGaN/GaN flip-chip LEDs with via-hole-based two-level metallization electrodes. Phys Status Solidi A, 2016, 213 (12): 3150.

[19]

Khurgin J B. How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 10 (1): 2

[20]

Dai T, Zhang B, Kang X N, et al. Light extraction improvement from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano-patterned surface using anodic aluminum oxide template. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett, 2008, 20 (21-24): 1974.

[21]

Pearton S J, Shul R J, Ren F. A review of dry etching of GaN and related materials. Mrs Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research, 2000, 5 (11): 1.

[22]

Evanoff D D, Chumanov G. Size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. 2. Measurement of extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. J Phys Chem B, 2004, 108 (37): 13957

[23]

Stolz A, Ko S M, Patriarche G, et al. Surface plasmon modulation induced by a direct-current electric field into gallium nitride thin film grown on Si(111) substrate. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102 (2): 021905.

[1]

Amano H, Kito M, Hiramatsu K, et al. P-type conduction in mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI). Jpn J Appl Phys, 1989, 28 (12), L2112

[2]

Nakamura S, Mukai T, Senoh M. High-power GAN p-n-junction blue-light-emitting diodes. Jp J Appl Phys, 1991, 30 (12A), L1998

[3]

Krames M R, Shchekin O B, Mueller-Mach R, et al. Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting. J Display Technol, 2007, 3 (2): 160

[4]

Zhmakin A I. Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes. Phys Rep-Rev Sec Phys Lett, 2011, 498 (4/5): 189

[5]

Wierer J J Jr, David A, Megens M M. III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency. Nat Photonics, 2009, 3 (3): 163

[6]

Koo W H, Jeong S M, Araoka F, et al. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles. Nat Photonics, 2010, 4 (4): 222

[7]

Wierer J J, Steigerwald D A, Krames M R, et al. High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 78 (22): 3379

[8]

Fujii T, Gao Y, Sharma R, et al. Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening. Appl Phys Lett, 2004, 84 (6): 855

[9]

Lee Y J, Hwang J M, Hsu T C, et al. Enhancing the output power of GaN-based LEDs grown on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 2006, 18 (9-12): 1152

[10]

Tadatomo K, Okagawa H, Ohuchi Y, et al. High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Jp J Appl Phys, 2001, 40 (6B), L583

[11]

Yamada M, Mitani T, Narukawa Y, et al. InGaN-based near-ultraviolet and blue-light-emitting diodes with high external quantum efficiency using a patterned sapphire substrate and a mesh electrode. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2002, 41 (12B), L1431

[12]

Lee H Y, Lin Y C, Su Y T, et al. Performance improvement of GaN-based flip-chip white light-emitting diodes with diffused nanorod reflector and with ZnO nanorod antireflection layer. J Nanomater, 2014, 2014, 987479.

[13]

Yin Z, Liu X, Yao H, et al. Light extraction enhancement of GaN LEDs by hybrid ZnO micro-cylinders and nanorods array. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett, 2013, 25 (20): 1989.

[14]

Xi J Q, Luo H, Pasquale A J, et al. Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett 2006, 18 (21-24): 2347.

[15]

Kim J Y, Kwon M K, Park I K, et al. Enhanced light extraction efficiency in flip-chip GaN light-emitting diodes with diffuse Ag reflector on nanotextured indium-tin oxide. Appl Phys Lett, 2008, 93 (2): 021121.

[16]

Jeon J W, Yum W S, Oh S, et al. Nanostructure Ag dots for improving thermal stability of Ag reflector for GaN-based light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 101 (2): 021115.

[17]

Zhou S, Liu X, Gao Y, et al. Numerical and experimental investigation of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes with highly reflective Ag/TiW and ITO/DBR Ohmic contacts. Opt Express, 2017, 25 (22): 26615.

[18]

Lv J, Zheng C, Chen Q, et al. High power InGaN/GaN flip-chip LEDs with via-hole-based two-level metallization electrodes. Phys Status Solidi A, 2016, 213 (12): 3150.

[19]

Khurgin J B. How to deal with the loss in plasmonics and metamaterials. Nat Nanotechnol, 2015, 10 (1): 2

[20]

Dai T, Zhang B, Kang X N, et al. Light extraction improvement from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with nano-patterned surface using anodic aluminum oxide template. IEEE Photonics Technol Lett, 2008, 20 (21-24): 1974.

[21]

Pearton S J, Shul R J, Ren F. A review of dry etching of GaN and related materials. Mrs Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research, 2000, 5 (11): 1.

[22]

Evanoff D D, Chumanov G. Size-controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. 2. Measurement of extinction, scattering, and absorption cross sections. J Phys Chem B, 2004, 108 (37): 13957

[23]

Stolz A, Ko S M, Patriarche G, et al. Surface plasmon modulation induced by a direct-current electric field into gallium nitride thin film grown on Si(111) substrate. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102 (2): 021905.

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X J Sun, Z G Yu, N Zhang, L Liu, J X Wang, J M Li, Y Zhang, Influence of light absorption on the metallic nanotextured reflectors of GaN-based light emitting diodes[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(3): 032301. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/3/032301.

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Manuscript received: 22 October 2018 Manuscript revised: 21 December 2018 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 January 2019 Uncorrected proof: 21 January 2019 Published: 01 March 2019

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