INVITED REVIEW PAPERS

GaN-based green laser diodes

Lingrong Jiang1, 2, Jianping Liu1, 2, , Aiqin Tian1, 2, Yang Cheng1, 2, Zengcheng Li1, 2, Liqun Zhang1, 2, Shuming Zhang1, 2, Deyao Li1, 2, M. Ikeda1, 2 and Hui Yang1, 2

+ Author Affiliations

 Corresponding author: LiuJianping,jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn

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Abstract: Recently, many groups have focused on the development of GaN-based green LDs to meet the demand for laser display. Great progresses have been achieved in the past few years even that many challenges exist. In this article, we analysis the challenges to develop GaN-based green LDs, and then the approaches to improve the green LD structure in the aspect of crystalline quality, electrical properties, and epitaxial layer structure are reviewed, especially the work we have done.

Key words: green LDsInGaNQCSEIn-rich



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) Color gamut in the CIE chromaticity diagram of laser, LED, LCD and CRT display.

Fig. 2.  Wurtzite GaN crystallographic planes.

Fig. 3.  Optical gain spectra. The gain spectra of laser diodes broadens with the increase of the wavelength[13].

Fig. 4.  The schematic diagram of QCSE. Structure (a) is free from QCSE while structure (b) suffers from it.

Fig. 5.  (Color online) (a) Simulated near field for a schematic blue LD WG design. Oscillation of the field propagating in the substrate appear. (b) Measured near field pattern of a LD. Red: highest intensity, blue: lowest intensity, black: overexposed. Intensity of the mode leaking into substrate can be seen clearly[32].

Fig. 6.  The decrease of refractive index difference with the increasing of indium concentration and wavelength[33].

Fig. 7.  (Color online) Schematic diagram of green LDs' structure with the cap layers.

Fig. 8.  (Color online) (a) Wavelength dependent FWHMs of green LD structures with varying LT-cap thickness. The dashed line are guide lines to the eyes. (b) comparison of FWHMs of green LD structures from Sinano and the other work. It should be noted that the measured conditions are different for data from different groups.

Fig. 9.  The STEM images of the microstructure of active region with different thickness LT-cap. (a) 2.5 nm LT-cap,(b) 1.2 nm LT-cap. (c) and (d) are magnification of the circled areas in (a) and (b), respectively. The bright lines are the InGaN (QW) and the dark region between lines are the GaN (QB).

Fig. 10.  Micro PL images of (a) LD-Ⅰand (b) LD-Ⅱwith a p-type layer growth temperature 30℃ lower than that of LD-Ⅰ. (c) LD-Ⅲ, with nominally identical growth parameters as LD-Ⅱ except for a thinner LT cap layer. (d) Comparison of on-wafer EL spectra of samples LDs at 20 mA at room temperature and the inset shows normalized E

Fig. 11.  Dependence of growth conditions on carbon incorporation: (a) growth temperature,(b) growth pressure,(c) growth rate. (d) shows hole concentration and resistivity dependent on carbon concentration.

Fig. 12.  (Color online) (a) The schematic diagram of structure. (b) The experimental EL spectrum. (c) The simulated EL spectrum. (d) The experimental EL spectrum with Si-doped.

Fig. 13.  (a) Lasing spectrum and photograph of the laser beam of the 508 nm LD. (b) Power-current curve of green LDs under continuous-wave operation.

Table 1.   Progress of green LDs.

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    Received: 10 October 2016 Revised: Online: Published: 01 November 2016

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      Lingrong Jiang, Jianping Liu, Aiqin Tian, Yang Cheng, Zengcheng Li, Liqun Zhang, Shuming Zhang, Deyao Li, M. Ikeda, Hui Yang. GaN-based green laser diodes[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2016, 37(11): 111001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001 L R Jiang, J P Liu, A Q Tian, Y Cheng, Z C Li, L Q Zhang, S M Zhang, D Y Li,M. Ikeda, H Yang. GaN-based green laser diodes[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(11): 111001. doi:  10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Lingrong Jiang, Jianping Liu, Aiqin Tian, Yang Cheng, Zengcheng Li, Liqun Zhang, Shuming Zhang, Deyao Li, M. Ikeda, Hui Yang. GaN-based green laser diodes[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2016, 37(11): 111001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001

      L R Jiang, J P Liu, A Q Tian, Y Cheng, Z C Li, L Q Zhang, S M Zhang, D Y Li,M. Ikeda, H Yang. GaN-based green laser diodes[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(11): 111001. doi:  10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001.
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      GaN-based green laser diodes

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001
      Funds:

      National Key Research and Development Progress of China Nos. 2016YFB0401803, 2016YFB0402002

      Science and Technology Support Project of Jiangsu Province No. BE2013007

      Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Science No. XDA09020401

      National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos. 61574160, 61334005

      Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Progress of China (Nos. 2016YFB0401803, 2016YFB0402002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574160, 61334005), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Science (No. XDA09020401), and the Science and Technology Support Project of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2013007).

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      • Corresponding author: LiuJianping,jpliu2010@sinano.ac.cn
      • Received Date: 2016-10-10
      • Published Date: 2016-11-01

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