J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 5 > Article Number: 052202

I/P interface modification for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells

Jie Zhang 1, 2, 3, 4, , Shixin Hou 1, 2, 3, 4, , Renjie Li 1, 2, 3, 4, , Bingbing Chen 1, 2, 3, 4, , Fuhua Hou 1, 2, 3, 4, , Xinghua Cui 1, 2, 3, 4, , Jingjing Liu 1, 2, 3, 4, , Qi Wang 1, 2, 3, 4, , Pengyang Wang 1, 2, 3, 4, , , Dekun Zhang 1, 2, 3, 4, , Ying Zhao 1, 2, 3, 4, and Xiaodan Zhang 1, 2, 3, 4, ,

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Abstract: Interface engineering has played an increasingly essential role in the development of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, we adopted an effective and simple one-step interface passivation method on a FA-based perovskite to fabricate efficient and stable planar PSCs. The surface defects are reduced by the perovskite interface passivation layer incorporated between the hole transport and perovskite absorber layers, and then non-radiative recombination is suppressed while interfacial carrier extraction is enhanced. The passivated planar PSCs demonstrates 20.83% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which is caused by the simultaneous enhancement of the fill factor and open-circuit voltage. In addition, the device also shows great ambient and thermal stability. It retains 94% of its original PCE after 1000 h under ambient air without encapsulation as well as 90% of its initial efficiency after 400 h under continuous heating at 65 °C with encapsulation. This research provides a strategy for the development of efficient and stable PSCs.

Key words: planar perovskite solar cellinterfacial engineeringone-step solutionstability

Abstract: Interface engineering has played an increasingly essential role in the development of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, we adopted an effective and simple one-step interface passivation method on a FA-based perovskite to fabricate efficient and stable planar PSCs. The surface defects are reduced by the perovskite interface passivation layer incorporated between the hole transport and perovskite absorber layers, and then non-radiative recombination is suppressed while interfacial carrier extraction is enhanced. The passivated planar PSCs demonstrates 20.83% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which is caused by the simultaneous enhancement of the fill factor and open-circuit voltage. In addition, the device also shows great ambient and thermal stability. It retains 94% of its original PCE after 1000 h under ambient air without encapsulation as well as 90% of its initial efficiency after 400 h under continuous heating at 65 °C with encapsulation. This research provides a strategy for the development of efficient and stable PSCs.

Key words: planar perovskite solar cellinterfacial engineeringone-step solutionstability



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Jiang Q, Zhao Y, Zhang X, et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells. Nat Photonics, 2019, 13(7), 460

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Zheng X, Chen B, Dai J, et al. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations. Nat Energy, 2014, 2, 17102

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Yang W S, Park B W, Jung E H, et al. Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide–based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science, 2017, 356(6345), 1376

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Wang F, Bai S, Tress W, et al. Defects engineering for high-performance perovskite solar cells. npj Flexible Electron, 2018, 2(1), 1

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Meng L, Sun C, Wang R, et al. Tailored phase conversion under conjugated polymer enables thermally stable perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 21%. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140(49), 17255

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Bai Y, Meng X, Yang S. Interface engineering for highly efficient and stable planar p–i–n perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8(5), 1701883

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Sherkar T S, Momblona C, Gil-Escrig L, et al. Recombination in perovskite solar cells: significance of grain boundaries, interface traps, and defect ions. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 2(5), 1214

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Moriya M, Hirotani D, Ohta T, et al. Architecture of the interface between the perovskite and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells. ChemSusChem, 2016, 9(18), 2634

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Li N, Tao S, Chen Y, et al. Cation and anion immobilization through chemical bonding enhancement with fluorides for stable halide perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2019, 4(5), 408

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Wang P, Li R, Chen B, et al. Gradient energy alignment engineering for planar perovskite solar cells with efficiency over 23%. Adv Mater, 2020, 32(6), 1905766

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Jiang Q, Chu Z, Wang P, et al. Planar-structure perovskite solar cells with efficiency beyond 21%. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(46), 1703852

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Tumen-Ulzii G, Qin C, Klotz D, et al. Detrimental effect of unreacted PbI2 on the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2020, 32(16), 1905035

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Jeng J Y, Chen K C, Chiang T Y, et al. Nickel oxide electrode interlayer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/PCBM planar-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(24), 4107

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You J, Meng L, Song T B, et al. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers. Nat Nanotechnol, 2016, 11(1), 75

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Xu G, Bi P, Wang S, et al. Integrating ultrathin bulk-heterojunction organic semiconductor intermediary for high-performance low-bandgap perovskite solar cells with low energy loss. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(42), 1804427

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Zhang J, Xue R, Xu G, et al. Self-doping fullerene electrolyte-based electron transport layer for all-room-temperature-processed high-performance flexible polymer solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(13), 1705847

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Wang S, Sakurai T, Wen W, et al. Energy level alignment at interfaces in metal halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater Interfaces, 2018, 5(22), 1800260

[34]

Li X, Bi D, Yi C, et al. A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells. Science, 2016, 353(6294), 58

[35]

Noel N K, Abate A, Stranks S D, et al. Enhanced photoluminescence and solar cell performance via Lewis base passivation of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(10), 9815

[36]

Du Y, Xin C, Huang W, et al. Polymeric surface modification of NiO x-based inverted planar perovskite solar cells with enhanced performance. ACS Sustain Chem Eng, 2018, 6(12), 16806

[37]

Lampert M A. Simplified theory of space-charge-limited currents in an insulator with traps. Phys Rev, 1956, 103(6), 1648

[38]

Zhumekenov A A, Saidaminov M I, Haque M A, et al. Formamidinium lead halide perovskite crystals with unprecedented long carrier dynamics and diffusion length. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1(1), 32

[39]

Zhang M, Chen Q, Xue R, et al. Reconfiguration of interfacial energy band structure for high-performance inverted structure perovskite solar cells. Nat Commun, 2019, 10(1), 1

[40]

Wang S, Chen H, Zhang J, et al. Targeted therapy for interfacial engineering toward stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(41), 1903691

[1]

Yang W S, Noh J H, Jeon N J, et al. High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange. Science, 2015, 348(6240), 1234

[2]

Dong Q, Fang Y, Shao Y, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths > 175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals. Science, 2015, 347(6225), 967

[3]

Saidaminov M I, Abdelhady A L, Murali B, et al. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization. Nat Commun, 2015, 6(1), 1

[4]

Han Q, Bae S H, Sun P, et al. Single crystal formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3): insight into the structural, optical, and electrical properties. Adv Mater, 2016, 28(11), 2253

[5]

Chu S, Cui Y, Liu N. The path towards sustainable energy. Nat Mater, 2017, 16(1), 16

[6]

McMeekin D P, Sadoughi G, Rehman W, et al. A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells. Science, 2016, 351(6269), 151

[7]

Kojima A, Teshima K, Shirai Y, et al. Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells. J Am Chem Soc, 2009, 131(17), 6050

[8]

Kim H S, Lee C R, Im J H, et al. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%. Sci Rep, 2012, 2, 591

[9]

Jiang Q, Zhao Y, Zhang X, et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film for efficient solar cells. Nat Photonics, 2019, 13(7), 460

[10]

https://www.nrel.gov/pv/cell-efficiency.html

[11]

Hanusch F C, Wiesenmayer E, Mankel E, et al. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells based on formamidinium lead bromide. J Phys Chem Lett, 2014, 5(16), 2791

[12]

Zhao X, Park N G. Stability issues on perovskite solar cells. In: Photonics. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2015, 2(4), 1139

[13]

Xu T, Chen L, Guo Z, et al. Strategic improvement of the long-term stability of perovskite materials and perovskite solar cells. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2016, 18(39), 27026

[14]

Zheng X, Chen B, Dai J, et al. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations. Nat Energy, 2014, 2, 17102

[15]

Yang W S, Park B W, Jung E H, et al. Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide–based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells. Science, 2017, 356(6345), 1376

[16]

Wang F, Bai S, Tress W, et al. Defects engineering for high-performance perovskite solar cells. npj Flexible Electron, 2018, 2(1), 1

[17]

Meng L, Sun C, Wang R, et al. Tailored phase conversion under conjugated polymer enables thermally stable perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 21%. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140(49), 17255

[18]

Bai Y, Meng X, Yang S. Interface engineering for highly efficient and stable planar p–i–n perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8(5), 1701883

[19]

Sherkar T S, Momblona C, Gil-Escrig L, et al. Recombination in perovskite solar cells: significance of grain boundaries, interface traps, and defect ions. ACS Energy Lett, 2017, 2(5), 1214

[20]

Moriya M, Hirotani D, Ohta T, et al. Architecture of the interface between the perovskite and hole-transport layers in perovskite solar cells. ChemSusChem, 2016, 9(18), 2634

[21]

Tan H, Che F, Wei M, et al. Dipolar cations confer defect tolerance in wide-bandgap metal halide perovskites. Nat Commun, 2018, 9(1), 1

[22]

Li N, Tao S, Chen Y, et al. Cation and anion immobilization through chemical bonding enhancement with fluorides for stable halide perovskite solar cells. Nat Energy, 2019, 4(5), 408

[23]

Wang P, Li R, Chen B, et al. Gradient energy alignment engineering for planar perovskite solar cells with efficiency over 23%. Adv Mater, 2020, 32(6), 1905766

[24]

Jiang Q, Chu Z, Wang P, et al. Planar-structure perovskite solar cells with efficiency beyond 21%. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(46), 1703852

[25]

Turren-Cruz S H, Hagfeldt A, Saliba M. Methylammonium-free, high-performance, and stable perovskite solar cells on a planar architecture. Science, 2018, 362(6413), 449

[26]

Wang Y, Wu T, Barbaud J, et al. Stabilizing heterostructures of soft perovskite semiconductors. Science, 2019, 365(6454), 687

[27]

Wang P, Jiang Q, Zhao Y, et al. Synergistic improvement of perovskite film quality for efficient solar cells via multiple chloride salt additives. Sci Bull, 2018, 63(11), 726

[28]

Tumen-Ulzii G, Qin C, Klotz D, et al. Detrimental effect of unreacted PbI2 on the long-term stability of perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2020, 32(16), 1905035

[29]

Jeng J Y, Chen K C, Chiang T Y, et al. Nickel oxide electrode interlayer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite/PCBM planar-heterojunction hybrid solar cells. Adv Mater, 2014, 26(24), 4107

[30]

You J, Meng L, Song T B, et al. Improved air stability of perovskite solar cells via solution-processed metal oxide transport layers. Nat Nanotechnol, 2016, 11(1), 75

[31]

Xu G, Bi P, Wang S, et al. Integrating ultrathin bulk-heterojunction organic semiconductor intermediary for high-performance low-bandgap perovskite solar cells with low energy loss. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(42), 1804427

[32]

Zhang J, Xue R, Xu G, et al. Self-doping fullerene electrolyte-based electron transport layer for all-room-temperature-processed high-performance flexible polymer solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2018, 28(13), 1705847

[33]

Wang S, Sakurai T, Wen W, et al. Energy level alignment at interfaces in metal halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater Interfaces, 2018, 5(22), 1800260

[34]

Li X, Bi D, Yi C, et al. A vacuum flash-assisted solution process for high-efficiency large-area perovskite solar cells. Science, 2016, 353(6294), 58

[35]

Noel N K, Abate A, Stranks S D, et al. Enhanced photoluminescence and solar cell performance via Lewis base passivation of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites. ACS Nano, 2014, 8(10), 9815

[36]

Du Y, Xin C, Huang W, et al. Polymeric surface modification of NiO x-based inverted planar perovskite solar cells with enhanced performance. ACS Sustain Chem Eng, 2018, 6(12), 16806

[37]

Lampert M A. Simplified theory of space-charge-limited currents in an insulator with traps. Phys Rev, 1956, 103(6), 1648

[38]

Zhumekenov A A, Saidaminov M I, Haque M A, et al. Formamidinium lead halide perovskite crystals with unprecedented long carrier dynamics and diffusion length. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1(1), 32

[39]

Zhang M, Chen Q, Xue R, et al. Reconfiguration of interfacial energy band structure for high-performance inverted structure perovskite solar cells. Nat Commun, 2019, 10(1), 1

[40]

Wang S, Chen H, Zhang J, et al. Targeted therapy for interfacial engineering toward stable and efficient perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2019, 31(41), 1903691

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J Zhang, S X Hou, R J Li, B B Chen, F H Hou, X H Cui, J J Liu, Q Wang, P Y Wang, D K Zhang, Y Zhao, X D Zhang, I/P interface modification for stable and efficient perovskite solar cells[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 052202. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/052202.

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Manuscript received: 24 February 2020 Manuscript revised: 27 March 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 13 April 2020 Uncorrected proof: 08 May 2020 Published: 13 May 2020

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