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A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability

Melissa Davis and Zhibin Yu

+ Author Affiliations

 Corresponding author: Zhibin Yu, zyu@fsu.edu

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Abstract: The perovskite material has many superb qualities which allow for its remarkable success as solar cells; flexibility is an emerging field for this technology. To encourage commercialization of flexible perovskite solar cells, two main areas are of focus: mitigation of stability issues and adaptation of production to flexible substrates. An in-depth report on stability concerns and solutions follows with a focus on Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites. Roll to roll processing of devices is desired to further reduce costs, so a review of flexible devices and their production methods follows as well. The final focus is on the sustainability of perovskite solar cell devices where recycling methods and holistic environmental impacts of devices are done.

Key words: materialthin filmdiode



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) Crystal structure diagram for the perovskite material[4].

Fig. 2.  (Color online) Absorption coefficients over photon energy for perovskite, GaAs, and single crystal silicon[8].

Fig. 3.  (Color online) Current–voltage performance of a PSC with (a) hysteresis properties and (b) no hysteresis properties. (c) Schematic diagram denoting potential causes of hysteresis in a PSC[15].

Fig. 4.  (Color online) Time lapse of perovskite film degradation due to humidity[22].

Fig. 5.  (Color online) Stability depicted by change in absorption of perovskite films for two days in (a) illuminated, nitrogen atmosphere, (b) dark, nitrogen atmosphere, (c) illuminated, ambient atmosphere[27].

Fig. 6.  (Color online) Effect of UV light stability due to percentage of bromide included in PSC[31].

Fig. 7.  (Color online) Encapsulation methods for PSCs (a) with a full covering of epoxy and (b) with a ‘u’-shaped glass cover and a desiccant[33].

Fig. 8.  (Color online) Three common examples of 2D perovskites as the active layer of PSCs[38].

Fig. 9.  (Color online) Crystal Structures of Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson perovskites[38].

Fig. 10.  (Color online) Crystal structure for Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with increasing ‘n’ values[40].

Fig. 11.  (Color online) Growth orientations of Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites: horizontal and vertical[38].

Fig. 12.  (Color online) Solvent effect on growth direction for pure DMF, equal parts DMF and DMSO, and pure DMSO[36].

Fig. 13.  (Color online) Normalized efficiency of BA RPPSCs over time with (a) constant illumination while unencapsulated, (b) unencapsulated in humidity, (c) constant illumination while encapsulated, and (d) encapsulated in humidity[49].

Fig. 14.  (Color online) Energy payback times per photovoltaic material where P-1 and P-2 are two PSCs with different layers[54].

Fig. 15.  (Color online) (a) Sequential processing of R2R production for all steps. (b) Slot die printing apparatus. (c) Resulting fPSC device. (d) Razza et al.’s R2R processing apparatus[59].

Fig. 16.  (Color online) fPSC device structure of Han et al. on titanium film[67].

Fig. 17.  (Color online) (a) Schematic view of PEN sandwich set-up for (a1) single PEN, (a2) double PEN with 125 μm offset, and (a3) double PEN with neutral position. (b–d) SEM images of PEN devices post flexing with a higher magnification on apparent cracks. The images correspond with the schematic set-up as follows: (b) is (a1), (c) is (a2), and (d) is (a3)[76].

Fig. 18.  SEM Images of (a) ITO on PET with ITO flexed outward and inward, (b) ITO on CPI with ITO flexed outward and inward[71].

Fig. 19.  (Color online) Perovskite film deposition method by Wu et al. with spin-coating, low pressure solvent removal, and thermal annealing[70].

Fig. 20.  Device structure of inverted fPSC with an efficiency of 18.1% ITO/PET/perovskite/fullerene/BCP/Copper[81].

Fig. 21.  (Color online) (a1) Cell structure with energy band levels. (a2) Slot die set-up with gas quenching attachment. (b) Roll to Roll manufacturing set-up seen in stages (b1) PbI2 deposited (b2) PbI2 layer annealed with gas quenching (b3) resulting film after MAI[84].

Fig. 22.  (Color online) (a) Perovskite deposition method by Zuo et al. where solution is deposited onto a heated substrate and quenched with nitrogen gas then heated with a second hot plate. (b) Photographs of resulting rolls[85].

Fig. 23.  (Color online) Conversion of 1 lead-acid battery into 709 m2 PSCs and power for 30.2 homes in Las Vegas[93].

Fig. 24.  (Color online) Refining processes for PbI2 in perovskite solar cells when harvest from raw lead ore or car batteries[93].

Fig. 25.  (Color online) Two-step process of Kim et al. to extract lead from solvents[94].

Fig. 26.  (Color online) Environmental Profile of FTO/TiO2/perovskite/spiro/Au focus should be given to the factors highlighted with a red box[54].

Fig. 27.  (Color online) Environmental profile of ITO/ZnO/perovskite/Ag[54].

Fig. 28.  (Color online) Holistic impact of various PV materials on resources, human health, and ecosystem quality P-1 is FTO/ TiO2/perovskite/spiro/Au P-2 is ITO/ZnO/perovskite/Ag[54].

Table 1.   Summary of flexible substrates with their maximum working temperature, cost, and record efficiency.

MaterialWorking
temperature (°C)
CostRecord
efficiency (%)
PET120Low18.53
PEN155Low19.38
CPI300Low15.5
Flexible/ willow glass700High18.1
DownLoad: CSV
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    Received: 30 December 2019 Revised: 10 March 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 18 March 2020Uncorrected proof: 19 March 2020Published: 10 April 2020

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      Melissa Davis, Zhibin Yu. A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603 M Davis, Z B Yu, A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Melissa Davis, Zhibin Yu. A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603

      M Davis, Z B Yu, A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603.
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      A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603
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      • Corresponding author: zyu@fsu.edu
      • Received Date: 2019-12-30
      • Revised Date: 2020-03-10
      • Published Date: 2020-04-01

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