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Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging

Yirong Su, Wenbo Ma and Yang (Michael) Yang

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 Corresponding author: Yang (Michael) Yang, yangyang15@zju.edu.cn

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Abstract: Halide perovskites have emerged as the next generation of optoelectronic materials and their remarkable performances have been attractive in the fields of solar cells, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, etc. In addition, halide perovskites have been reported as an attractive new class of X-ray direct detecting materials recently, owning to the strong X-ray stopping capacity, excellent carrier transport, high sensitivity, and cost-effective manufacturing. Meanwhile, perovskite based direct X-ray imagers have been successfully demonstrated as well. In this review article, we firstly introduced some fundamental principles of direct X-ray detection and imaging, and summarized the advances of perovskite materials for these purposes and finally put forward some needful and feasible directions.

Key words: halide perovskitesX-ray detectionoptoelectronic materials



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) (a) Spectrum region of X-ray to wavelength and photon energy. (b) Thomson scattering from an atom. An X-ray with a wave vector k scatters from an atom to the direction specified by k’. The scattering is assumed to be elastic. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [6]. (c) Compton scattering. A photon with energy $ {\varepsilon}=\hbar ck $ and momentum $\hbar {k}$ scatters from an electron at rest with energy mc2. The electron recoils with a momentum $\hbar {q'} = \hbar \left( {{k} - {k'}} \right)$. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [6]. (d) Schematic diagram of photoelectric absorption process. An X-ray photon is absorbed and an electron ejected from the atom. The hole created in the inner shell (k) can be filled by Fluorescent X-ray emission. Electrons in an outer shell fill the hole, creating a photon. In this diagram the outer electron comes either from the L or M shell. In the former case the fluorescent radiation is referred to as the Kα line, and in the latter as Kβ line.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) (a) Working Principle of ion chamber. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [22]. (b) Semiconductor X-ray detectors’ two types of work modes: current mode and voltage mode. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [23]. (c) The linear absorption coefficients of different kinds of perovskite and conventional X-ray detectors. (d) Images of a piece of MAPbI3 single crystal. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [52]. (e) Images of perovskite single crystals of MAPbBr3 (left top), c-MAPbI3 (right top), Cs2AgBiBr6 (left bottom) and (NH3)4Bi2I9 (right bottom). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [1618, 53]. (f) Schematic representation of the ITC apparatus in which the crystallization vial is immersed within a heating bath. The solution is heated from room temperature and kept at an elevated temperature (80 °C for MAPbBr3 and 110 °C for MAPbI3) to initiate the crystallization. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [54]. (g) Schematic of layer stacking of the MAPbI3-based PIN photodiode. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [20]. (h) Illustration of an all-solution-processed digital X-ray detector. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [21]. (i) Device stack of the MAPbI3-wafer-based X-ray detector. Inset: Free-standing MAPbI3 wafer (thickness: 1 mm). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [55]. (j) Preparation scheme for a thick CsPbBr3 film using the four-step hot-pressing method. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [56].

Fig. 3.  (Color online) (a) X-ray image of resolution test chart. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [42]. (b) An edge X-ray image used for calculation of MTF. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [76]. (c) A simplified schematic diagram of the cross section of a single pixel with a TFT. The charges generated by the absorption of X-rays drift towards their respective electrodes. The TFT is normally off and is turned on when the gate G1 is addressed. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [11]. (d) Idealized MTF and MTF due to trapping. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [25].

Fig. 4.  (Color online) (a) Left: Anrad’s mammographic FPXI (AXS-2430) is used in mammography markets. The field of view is 24 × 30 cm2 and the FPXI have a pixel pitch of 85 μm. Right: an X-ray image of a hand from AXS-2430. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [11]. (b) Photograph (left) and corresponding X-ray image (right) of a leaf, obtained with the photoconductor in Ref. [20]. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [20]. (c) Left: image of spin-cast PI-MAPbI3 on an a-Si:H TFT backplane. The inset in the left shows a single-pixel structure of TFT (scale bar 30 μm). Right: A hand X-ray image obtained from this MAPbI3 FPXI. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [21]. (d) Left: The fabricated multi-pixel wafer-based Cs2AgBiBr6 polycrystalline detector. Right top: schematic illustration of the imaging process. Right bottom: X-ray image and optical image of ‘HUST’ symbol. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [18]. (e) Photograph of Si-integrated MAPbBr3 single crystal with a 10 g weight attached to the MAPbBr3 crystal. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [19]. (f) Left: schematic illustration of X-ray imaging with Si-integrated MAPbBr3 single crystal detectors. Right: photo (top) and X-ray image (bottom) of an ‘N’ copper logo. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [19]. (g) Top: photo of the PIN array. Bottom: object photo (left) and X-ray image (right) for 100 keV energy. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [59].

Table 1.   Performances and parameters of part of conventional and perovskite X-ray direct detectors. In “status” column, A is amorphous, S is single-crystal and P is polycrystalline.

MaterialLinear absorption coefficients to
50 keV (cm−1)
W± (eV)μτ (cm2 V−1)F (V/cm)Sensitivity (μC/(Gy·cm2))Lowest detectable dose rate (nGyair/s)Status (A, P or S)Ref.
μeτeμhτh
Si1.0223.62> 1~ 10.58< 8300S[30-32, 71]
CZT60.63~ 4.610−3 – 10−210−50.1−131850S[32, 34, 72, 73]
a-Se3.864453 × 10−7
10−5
10−6
6 × 10−5
> 10420A[11, 21, 57]
MAPbBr319.416.031.2 × 10−20.580500S[16]
MAPbBr3(Si)19.416.031.39 × 10−4~ 352.1 × 104< 100S[19]
MAPbBr3(PIN)19.416.031502.36 × 104S[59]
MAPbI3(Cuboid)40.61~ 4.41.1 × 10−410968.9S[53]
MAPbI3(GA alloyed)< 40.61~ 4.51.25 × 10−2~ 422.3 × 10416.9S[60]
CsPbBr3(QDs)35.07~ 5.910001450S[62]
CsPbBr3(Rb doped)35.07~ 5.97.2 × 10−4~ 2008.1 × 103S[63]
CsPbI3(1D)57.06~ 6.83.63 × 10−341.72.37 × 103219S[64]
Cs2AgBiBr639.085.611.21 × 10−3, 6.3 × 10−3, 5.51 × 10−3, 1.94 × 10−3, —, 5.95 × 10−333, 250, 5000, 227, 500, 5004.2, 105, 250, 288.8, 988,1974S/P[17, 18, 63, 66-68]
(NH4)3Bi2I946.985.471.1 × 10−2//, 4 × 10−3508.2 × 103//, 803⊥55S[18]
(DMEDA)BiI5~ 405.15494072.5S[69]
MAPbI3(PV)40.61~ 4.42 × 10−7~ 80001.75P[20]
MAPbI3(Flat detector)40.61~ 4.41 × 10−4~ 24103.8 × 103P[21]
MAPbI3(Wafer)40.61~ 4.42 × 10−457002.527 × 103P[55]
CsPbBr3(Hot-pressed)35.07~ 61.32 × 10−2505.5684 × 104215P[56]
MA3Bi2I9~405.391.2 × 10−3 (out-of-plane), 2.8 × 10−3 (in plane)12010 620 (out-of-plane)5.3S[74]
DownLoad: CSV
[1]
Spahn M. X-ray detectors in medical imaging. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2013, 731, 57 doi: 10.1016/j.nima.2013.05.174
[2]
Van Eijk C W. Inorganic scintillators in medical imaging. Phys Med Biol, 2002, 47, R85 doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/47/8/201
[3]
Duan X, Cheng J, Zhang L, et al. X-ray cargo container inspection system with few-view projection imaging. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A, 2009, 598, 439 doi: 10.1016/j.nima.2008.08.151
[4]
Haff R P, Toyofuku N. X-ray detection of defects and contaminants in the food industry. Sens Instrum Food Quality Safety, 2008, 2, 262 doi: 10.1007/s11694-008-9059-8
[5]
Chapman H N, Fromme P, Barty A, et al. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography. Nature, 2011, 470, 73 doi: 10.1038/nature09750
[6]
Nielsen J A, McMorrow D. Elements of modern X-ray physics. Wiley, 2011
[7]
Moses W W. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging. LBNL Publications, 1999
[8]
Lin E C. Radiation risk from medical imaging. In: Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier, 2010, 1142
[9]
Knoll G F. Radiation detection and measurement. John Wiley & Sons, 2010
[10]
Rowlands J A. Medical imaging: Material change for X-ray detectors. Nature, 2017, 550, 47 doi: 10.1038/550047a
[11]
Kasap S, Frey J B, Belev G, et al. Amorphous and polycrystalline photoconductors for direct conversion flat panel X-ray image sensors. Sensors, 2011, 11, 5112 doi: 10.3390/s110505112
[12]
Zheng X, Chen B, Dai J, et al. Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations. Nat Energy, 2017, 2, 17102 doi: 10.1038/nenergy.2017.102
[13]
Xiao Z, Kerner R A, Zhao L, et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 108 doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2016.269
[14]
Saliba M, Wood S M, Patel J B, et al. Structured organic–inorganic perovskite toward a distributed feedback laser. Adv Mater, 2016, 28, 923 doi: 10.1002/adma.201502608
[15]
Dou L, Yang Y M, You J, et al. Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity. Nat Commun, 2014, 5, 5404 doi: 10.1038/ncomms6404
[16]
Wei H, Fang Y, Mulligan P, et al. Sensitive X-ray detectors made of methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystals. Nat Photonics, 2016, 10, 333 doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2016.41
[17]
Pan W, Wu H, Luo J, et al. Cs2AgBiBr6 single-crystal X-ray detectors with a low detection limit. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 726 doi: 10.1038/s41566-017-0012-4
[18]
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[19]
Wei W, Zhang Y, Xu Q, et al. Monolithic integration of hybrid perovskite single crystals with heterogenous substrate for highly sensitive X-ray imaging. Nat Photonics, 2017, 11, 315 doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.43
[20]
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    Received: 19 March 2020 Revised: 27 April 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 06 May 2020Uncorrected proof: 06 May 2020Published: 13 May 2020

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      Yirong Su, Wenbo Ma, Yang (Michael) Yang. Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(5): 051204. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204 Y R Su, W B Ma, Y Yang, Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 051204. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Yirong Su, Wenbo Ma, Yang (Michael) Yang. Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(5): 051204. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204

      Y R Su, W B Ma, Y Yang, Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(5): 051204. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204.
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      Perovskite semiconductors for direct X-ray detection and imaging

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/5/051204
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        Yirong Su ‡ These authors contributed equally to this work

        Wenbo Ma ‡ Those authors contribute equally to this work

      • Corresponding author: yangyang15@zju.edu.cn
      • Received Date: 2020-03-19
      • Revised Date: 2020-04-27
      • Published Date: 2020-05-01

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