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Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

Jilin Wang1, 2, Ruibin Tang1, Lixiu Zhang3, Fei Long1, 2, Disheng Yao1, 2, and Liming Ding3,

+ Author Affiliations

 Corresponding author: Disheng Yao, yaodisheng@126.com; Liming Ding, ding@nanoctr.cn

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[1]
Dong Q, Fang Y, Shao Y, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals. Science, 2015, 347, 967 doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5760
[2]
De Quilettes D W, Vorpahl S M, Stranks S D, et al. Impact of microstructure on local carrier lifetime in perovskite solar cells. Science, 2015, 348, 683 doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5333
[3]
Steirer K X, Schulz P, Teeter G, et al. Defect tolerance in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1, 360 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00196
[4]
Wehrenfennig C, Eperon G E, Johnston M B, et al. High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites. Adv Mater, 2014, 26, 1584 doi: 10.1002/adma.201305172
[5]
Aristidou N, Eames C, Sanchez-Molina I, et al. Fast oxygen diffusion and iodide defects mediate oxygen-induced degradation of perovskite solar cells. Nat Commun, 2017, 8, 1 doi: 10.1038/s41467-016-0009-6
[6]
Bowring A R, Bertoluzzi L, O'Regan B C, et al. Reverse bias behavior of halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8, 1702365 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201702365
[7]
Kim G Y, Senocrate A, Yang T Y, et al. Large tunable photoeffect on ion conduction in halide perovskites and implications for photodecomposition. Nat Mater, 2018, 17, 445 doi: 10.1038/s41563-018-0038-0
[8]
Xie L Q, Chen L, Nan Z A, et al. Understanding the cubic phase stabilization and crystallization kinetics in mixed cations and halides perovskite single crystals. J Am Chem Soc, 2017, 139, 3320 doi: 10.1021/jacs.6b12432
[9]
Zheng X, Wu C, Jha S K, et al. Improved phase stability of formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite by strain relaxation. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1, 1014 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00457
[10]
Saliba M, Matsui T, Seo J Y, et al. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility, and high efficiency. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9, 1989 doi: 10.1039/C5EE03874J
[11]
Niu G, Li W, Li J, et al. Enhancement of thermal stability for perovskite solar cells through cesium doping. RSC Adv, 2017, 7, 17473 doi: 10.1039/C6RA28501E
[12]
Xia X, Wu W, Li H, et al. Spray reaction prepared FA1– xCs xPbI3 solid solution as a light harvester for perovskite solar cells with improved humidity stability. RSC Adv, 2016, 6, 14792 doi: 10.1039/C5RA23359C
[13]
Yi X, Zhang Z, Chang A, et al. Incorporating CsF into the PbI2 film for stable mixed cation-halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2019, 9, 1901726 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201901726
[14]
Park Y H, Jeong I, Bae S, et al. Inorganic rubidium cation as an enhancer for photovoltaic performance and moisture stability of HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27, 1605988 doi: 10.1002/adfm.201605988
[15]
Saliba M, Matsui T, Domanski K, et al. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance. Science, 2016, 354, 206 doi: 10.1126/science.aah5557
[16]
Duong T, Wu Y L, Shen H, et al. Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite-silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7, 1700228 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201700228
[17]
Azmi R, Nurrosyid N, Lee S H, et al. Shallow and deep trap state passivation for low-temperature processed perovskite solar cells. ACS Energy Lett, 2020, 5, 1396 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00596
[18]
You S, Zeng H, Ku Z, et al. Multifunctional polymer-regulated SnO2 nanocrystals enhance interface contact for efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2020, 32, 2003990 doi: 10.1002/adma.202003990
[19]
Son D Y, Kim S G, Seo J Y, et al. Universal approach toward hysteresis-free perovskite solar cell via defect engineering. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140, 1358 doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b10430
[20]
Cao J, Tao S X, Bobbert P A, et al. Interstitial occupancy by extrinsic alkali cations in perovskites and its impact on ion migration. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1707350 doi: 10.1002/adma.201707350
[21]
Abdi-Jalebi M, Dar M I, Sadhanala A, et al. Impact of monovalent cation halide additives on the structural and optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6, 1502472 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201502472
[22]
Kausar A, Sattar A, Xu C, et al. Advent of alkali metal doping: a roadmap for the evolution of perovskite solar cells. Chem Soc Rev, 2021, 50, 2696 doi: 10.1039/D0CS01316A
[23]
Zhang M, Hu W, Shang Y, et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film by sodium toluenesulfonate for highly efficient solar cells. Sol RRL, 2020, 4, 2000113 doi: 10.1002/solr.202000113
[24]
Lin Z, Zhu H, Zhou L, et al. Investigation on the structural, morphological, electronic and photovoltaic properties of a perovskite thin film by introducing lithium halide. RSC Adv, 2018, 8, 11455 doi: 10.1039/C8RA01199K
[25]
Zhang J, Chen R, Wu Y, et al. Extrinsic movable ions in MAPbI3 modulate energy band alignment in perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8, 1701981 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201701981
Fig. 1.  (Color online) (a) Illustration of Cs+ and Rb+ positions in perovskite lattice. (b) XRD patterns for CsxMAFA perovskites (x = 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%). Reproduced with permission[10], Copyright 2016, Royal Society of Chemistry. (c) Perovskite films with different Cs+ content exposed to different atmosphere. Reproduced with permission[11], Copyright 2017, Royal Society of Chemistry. (d) Absorbance change of FAPbI3 (Left) and Rb0.05FA0.95PbI3 (Right) perovskite films stored in the dark at 85% RH for different durations. Reproduced with permission[14], Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) (a) K+ occupies the interstitial sites and inhibits the formation of I-Frankel defects. (b) J−V curves for perovskite solar cells without and with KI doping under forward and reverse scans. Reproduced with permission[19], Copyright 2018, American Chemical Society. (c) SEM images for films without/with STS. Reproduced with permission[23], Copyright 2020, John Wiley & Sons. (d) The enlarged quasi-Fermi level splitting. Reproduced with permission[25], Copyright 2017, John Wiley & Sons.

[1]
Dong Q, Fang Y, Shao Y, et al. Electron-hole diffusion lengths >175 μm in solution-grown CH3NH3PbI3 single crystals. Science, 2015, 347, 967 doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5760
[2]
De Quilettes D W, Vorpahl S M, Stranks S D, et al. Impact of microstructure on local carrier lifetime in perovskite solar cells. Science, 2015, 348, 683 doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5333
[3]
Steirer K X, Schulz P, Teeter G, et al. Defect tolerance in methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1, 360 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00196
[4]
Wehrenfennig C, Eperon G E, Johnston M B, et al. High charge carrier mobilities and lifetimes in organolead trihalide perovskites. Adv Mater, 2014, 26, 1584 doi: 10.1002/adma.201305172
[5]
Aristidou N, Eames C, Sanchez-Molina I, et al. Fast oxygen diffusion and iodide defects mediate oxygen-induced degradation of perovskite solar cells. Nat Commun, 2017, 8, 1 doi: 10.1038/s41467-016-0009-6
[6]
Bowring A R, Bertoluzzi L, O'Regan B C, et al. Reverse bias behavior of halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8, 1702365 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201702365
[7]
Kim G Y, Senocrate A, Yang T Y, et al. Large tunable photoeffect on ion conduction in halide perovskites and implications for photodecomposition. Nat Mater, 2018, 17, 445 doi: 10.1038/s41563-018-0038-0
[8]
Xie L Q, Chen L, Nan Z A, et al. Understanding the cubic phase stabilization and crystallization kinetics in mixed cations and halides perovskite single crystals. J Am Chem Soc, 2017, 139, 3320 doi: 10.1021/jacs.6b12432
[9]
Zheng X, Wu C, Jha S K, et al. Improved phase stability of formamidinium lead triiodide perovskite by strain relaxation. ACS Energy Lett, 2016, 1, 1014 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00457
[10]
Saliba M, Matsui T, Seo J Y, et al. Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility, and high efficiency. Energy Environ Sci, 2016, 9, 1989 doi: 10.1039/C5EE03874J
[11]
Niu G, Li W, Li J, et al. Enhancement of thermal stability for perovskite solar cells through cesium doping. RSC Adv, 2017, 7, 17473 doi: 10.1039/C6RA28501E
[12]
Xia X, Wu W, Li H, et al. Spray reaction prepared FA1– xCs xPbI3 solid solution as a light harvester for perovskite solar cells with improved humidity stability. RSC Adv, 2016, 6, 14792 doi: 10.1039/C5RA23359C
[13]
Yi X, Zhang Z, Chang A, et al. Incorporating CsF into the PbI2 film for stable mixed cation-halide perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2019, 9, 1901726 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201901726
[14]
Park Y H, Jeong I, Bae S, et al. Inorganic rubidium cation as an enhancer for photovoltaic performance and moisture stability of HC(NH2)2PbI3 perovskite solar cells. Adv Funct Mater, 2017, 27, 1605988 doi: 10.1002/adfm.201605988
[15]
Saliba M, Matsui T, Domanski K, et al. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance. Science, 2016, 354, 206 doi: 10.1126/science.aah5557
[16]
Duong T, Wu Y L, Shen H, et al. Rubidium multication perovskite with optimized bandgap for perovskite-silicon tandem with over 26% efficiency. Adv Energy Mater, 2017, 7, 1700228 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201700228
[17]
Azmi R, Nurrosyid N, Lee S H, et al. Shallow and deep trap state passivation for low-temperature processed perovskite solar cells. ACS Energy Lett, 2020, 5, 1396 doi: 10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00596
[18]
You S, Zeng H, Ku Z, et al. Multifunctional polymer-regulated SnO2 nanocrystals enhance interface contact for efficient and stable planar perovskite solar cells. Adv Mater, 2020, 32, 2003990 doi: 10.1002/adma.202003990
[19]
Son D Y, Kim S G, Seo J Y, et al. Universal approach toward hysteresis-free perovskite solar cell via defect engineering. J Am Chem Soc, 2018, 140, 1358 doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b10430
[20]
Cao J, Tao S X, Bobbert P A, et al. Interstitial occupancy by extrinsic alkali cations in perovskites and its impact on ion migration. Adv Mater, 2018, 30, 1707350 doi: 10.1002/adma.201707350
[21]
Abdi-Jalebi M, Dar M I, Sadhanala A, et al. Impact of monovalent cation halide additives on the structural and optoelectronic properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. Adv Energy Mater, 2016, 6, 1502472 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201502472
[22]
Kausar A, Sattar A, Xu C, et al. Advent of alkali metal doping: a roadmap for the evolution of perovskite solar cells. Chem Soc Rev, 2021, 50, 2696 doi: 10.1039/D0CS01316A
[23]
Zhang M, Hu W, Shang Y, et al. Surface passivation of perovskite film by sodium toluenesulfonate for highly efficient solar cells. Sol RRL, 2020, 4, 2000113 doi: 10.1002/solr.202000113
[24]
Lin Z, Zhu H, Zhou L, et al. Investigation on the structural, morphological, electronic and photovoltaic properties of a perovskite thin film by introducing lithium halide. RSC Adv, 2018, 8, 11455 doi: 10.1039/C8RA01199K
[25]
Zhang J, Chen R, Wu Y, et al. Extrinsic movable ions in MAPbI3 modulate energy band alignment in perovskite solar cells. Adv Energy Mater, 2018, 8, 1701981 doi: 10.1002/aenm.201701981
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    Received: 03 October 2021 Revised: Online: Accepted Manuscript: 11 October 2021Uncorrected proof: 21 October 2021Published: 04 January 2022

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      Jilin Wang, Ruibin Tang, Lixiu Zhang, Fei Long, Disheng Yao, Liming Ding. Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(1): 010203. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/010203 J L Wang, R B Tang, L X Zhang, F Long, D S Yao, L M Ding, Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells[J]. J. Semicond., 2022, 43(1): 010203. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/010203.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Jilin Wang, Ruibin Tang, Lixiu Zhang, Fei Long, Disheng Yao, Liming Ding. Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(1): 010203. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/010203

      J L Wang, R B Tang, L X Zhang, F Long, D S Yao, L M Ding, Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells[J]. J. Semicond., 2022, 43(1): 010203. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/010203.
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      Alkali metal cation engineering in organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/010203
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      • Jilin Wang:received his PhD in 2014 form Wuhan University of Technology under the supervision of Professor Weimin Wang. He joined Guilin University of Technology in 2015. Currently, he is an associate professor in Fei Long Group. His research focuses on optoelectronic materials and devices
      • Disheng Yao:is a senior lecturer in School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology. He received his PhD from School of Chemistry and Physics, Queensland University of Technology in 2020 under the supervision of Prof. Hongxia Wang. His research focuses on perovskite solar cells
      • Liming Ding:got his PhD from University of Science and Technology of China (was a joint student at Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, CAS). He started his research on OSCs and PLEDs in Olle Inganäs Lab in 1998. Later on, he worked at National Center for Polymer Research, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Argonne National Lab (USA). He joined Konarka as a Senior Scientist in 2008. In 2010, he joined National Center for Nanoscience and Technology as a full professor. His research focuses on innovative materials and devices. He is RSC Fellow, the nominator for Xplorer Prize, and the Associate Editors for Science Bulletin and Journal of Semiconductors
      • Corresponding author: yaodisheng@126.comding@nanoctr.cn
      • Received Date: 2021-10-03
      • Published Date: 2022-01-10

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