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Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors

Zhaomeng Gao1, 2, Shuxian Lyu1, 2 and Hangbing Lyu1, 2,

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 Corresponding author: Hangbing Lyu, lvhangbing@ime.ac.cn

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Abstract: Ferroelectric hysteresis loop measurement under high driving frequency generally faces great challenges. Parasitic factors in testing circuits such as leakage current and RC delay could result in abnormal hysteresis loops with erroneous remnant polarization (Pr) and coercive field (Ec). In this study, positive-up-negative-down (PUND) measurement under a wide frequency range was performed on a 10-nm thick Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 ferroelectric film. Detailed analysis on the leakage current and RC delay was conducted as the polarization switching occurs in the FE capacitor. After considering the time lag caused by RC delay, reasonable calibration of current response over the voltage pulse stimulus was employed in the integral of polarization current over time. In such a method, rational P–V loops measured at high frequencies (>1 MHz) was successfully achieved. This work provides a comprehensive understanding on the effect of parasitic factors on the polarization switching behavior of FE films.

Key words: PUND measurementHfO2-based ferroelectricRC delay



[1]
Francois T, Grenouillet L, Coignus J, et al. Demonstration of BEOL-compatible ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 scaled FeRAM co-integrated with 130nm CMOS for embedded NVM applications. 2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2019, 15.7.1 doi: 10.1109/IEDM19573.2019.8993485
[2]
Khan A I, Keshavarzi A, Datta S. The future of ferroelectric field-effect transistor technology. Nat Electron, 2020, 3, 588 doi: 10.1038/s41928-020-00492-7
[3]
Zubko P, Wojdeł J C, Hadjimichael M, et al. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices. Nature, 2016, 534, 524 doi: 10.1038/nature17659
[4]
Chen L, Wang T Y, Dai Y W, et al. Ultra-low power Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 based ferroelectric tunnel junction synapses for hardware neural network applications. Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 15826 doi: 10.1039/C8NR04734K
[5]
Yang S M, Jo J Y, Kim T H, et al. Ac dynamics of ferroelectric domains from an investigation of the frequency dependence of hysteresis loops. Phys Rev B, 2010, 82, 174125 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.174125
[6]
Li S D, Zhou D Y, Shi Z X, et al. Involvement of unsaturated switching in the endurance cycling of Si-doped HfO2 ferroelectric thin films. Adv Electron Mater, 2020, 6, 2000264 doi: 10.1002/aelm.202000264
[7]
Zhang Q N, Su Y. The frequency dependence of electromechanical behaviors of columnar-grained BaTiO3 nanofilms. Phys Lett A, 2020, 384, 126374 doi: 10.1016/j.physleta.2020.126374
[8]
Zhao D, Lenz T, Gelinck G H, et al. Depolarization of multidomain ferroelectric materials. Nat Commun, 2019, 10, 2547 doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10530-4
[9]
Park M H, Kim H J, Kim Y J, et al. The effects of crystallographic orientation and strain of thin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film on its ferroelectricity. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 104, 072901 doi: 10.1063/1.4866008
[10]
Ruff A, Li Z Y, Loidl A, et al. Frequency dependent polarisation switching in h-ErMnO3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 182908 doi: 10.1063/1.5026732
[11]
Borkar H, Kumar A. Effects of light on ferroelectric polarization and leakage current. IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud, 2018, 153 doi: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.03.062
[12]
Yang C H, Han Y J, Sun X S, et al. Effects of Nd3+-substitution for Bi-site on the leakage current, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films. Ceram Int, 2018, 44, 6330 doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.01.023
[13]
Pandey P, Hwang W S, Udayakumar K R, et al. Programming-pulse dependence of ferroelectric partial polarization: Insights from a comparative study of PZT and HZO capacitors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2020, 67, 4482 doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.3015794
[14]
Alessandri C, Pandey P, Abusleme A, et al. Switching dynamics of ferroelectric Zr-doped HfO2. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 1780 doi: 10.1109/LED.2018.2872124
[15]
Fina I, Fàbrega L, Langenberg E, et al. Nonferroelectric contributions to the hysteresis cycles in manganite thin films: A comparative study of measurement techniques. J Appl Phys, 2011, 109, 074105 doi: 10.1063/1.3555098
[16]
Degraeve R, Ogier J L, Bellens R, et al. A new model for the field dependence of intrinsic and extrinsic time-dependent dielectric breakdown. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1998, 45, 472 doi: 10.1109/16.658683
[17]
Yamaguchi M, Fujii S, Kamimuta Y, et al. Impact of specific failure mechanisms on endurance improvement for HfO2-based ferroelectric tunnel junction memory. 2018 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2018, 6D.2 doi: 10.1109/IRPS.2018.8353633
[18]
Lee Y H, Kim H J, Moon T, et al. Preparation and characterization of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2thin films grown by reactive sputtering. Nanotechnology, 2017, 28, 305703 doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa7624
[19]
Park M H, Kim H J, Kim Y J, et al. Study on the size effect in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films thinner than 8 nm before and after wake-up field cycling. Appl Phys Lett, 2015, 107, 192907 doi: 10.1063/1.4935588
Fig. 1.  (Color online) Hysteresis loops of 10-nm thick HZO films. (a, b) PUND measurement under 1 kHz and 1 MHz frequency. (c, d) The I–V and P–V loops were obtained from (a, b). The black, blue and orange lines represent applied the voltage, measured current and integrated polarization, respectively.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) The influence of frequency dependence on ferroelectricity. (a) Pr and (b) Ec were obtained by applying a voltage from 2.0 to 5.0 V under frequency from 1 Hz to 1 MHz for 10-nm thick HZO films.

Fig. 3.  (Color online) Calibration of P–V loops of Pt/(10 nm)HZO/NSTO capacitor at 1 MHz frequency. (a, b) PUND measurement on a 10 nm HZO film with 1 MHz frequency. The current data (blue line) is moved to the left for time (T) to obtain the calibrated current data (orange line). (cf) I–V and corresponding P–V loops of 10 nm HZO film after calibrating by different T = 30, 60, 90 and 120 ns, respectively.

Fig. 4.  (Color online) Calibration of P–V loops at different frequencies, capacitor area and series resistance. (ac) P–V and I–V loops of 10 nm HZO films at 4.5 V under 200 kHz, 500 kHz and 1 MHz initial (dotted line) and after calibration (solid line) T = 60 ns, respectively. (d) P–V loops are obtained in different capacitors area under 1 MHz. The dashed and solid lines indicate ferroelectric current and polarization, respectively. (e, f) P–V loops are obtained at the different distances between two probes under 1 MHz at initial and after calibration, respectively. The connection between the probe and the bottom NSTO electrode is realized by the breakdown capacitor.

[1]
Francois T, Grenouillet L, Coignus J, et al. Demonstration of BEOL-compatible ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 scaled FeRAM co-integrated with 130nm CMOS for embedded NVM applications. 2019 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2019, 15.7.1 doi: 10.1109/IEDM19573.2019.8993485
[2]
Khan A I, Keshavarzi A, Datta S. The future of ferroelectric field-effect transistor technology. Nat Electron, 2020, 3, 588 doi: 10.1038/s41928-020-00492-7
[3]
Zubko P, Wojdeł J C, Hadjimichael M, et al. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices. Nature, 2016, 534, 524 doi: 10.1038/nature17659
[4]
Chen L, Wang T Y, Dai Y W, et al. Ultra-low power Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 based ferroelectric tunnel junction synapses for hardware neural network applications. Nanoscale, 2018, 10, 15826 doi: 10.1039/C8NR04734K
[5]
Yang S M, Jo J Y, Kim T H, et al. Ac dynamics of ferroelectric domains from an investigation of the frequency dependence of hysteresis loops. Phys Rev B, 2010, 82, 174125 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.174125
[6]
Li S D, Zhou D Y, Shi Z X, et al. Involvement of unsaturated switching in the endurance cycling of Si-doped HfO2 ferroelectric thin films. Adv Electron Mater, 2020, 6, 2000264 doi: 10.1002/aelm.202000264
[7]
Zhang Q N, Su Y. The frequency dependence of electromechanical behaviors of columnar-grained BaTiO3 nanofilms. Phys Lett A, 2020, 384, 126374 doi: 10.1016/j.physleta.2020.126374
[8]
Zhao D, Lenz T, Gelinck G H, et al. Depolarization of multidomain ferroelectric materials. Nat Commun, 2019, 10, 2547 doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10530-4
[9]
Park M H, Kim H J, Kim Y J, et al. The effects of crystallographic orientation and strain of thin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film on its ferroelectricity. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 104, 072901 doi: 10.1063/1.4866008
[10]
Ruff A, Li Z Y, Loidl A, et al. Frequency dependent polarisation switching in h-ErMnO3. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 182908 doi: 10.1063/1.5026732
[11]
Borkar H, Kumar A. Effects of light on ferroelectric polarization and leakage current. IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud, 2018, 153 doi: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2018.03.062
[12]
Yang C H, Han Y J, Sun X S, et al. Effects of Nd3+-substitution for Bi-site on the leakage current, ferroelectric and dielectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films. Ceram Int, 2018, 44, 6330 doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.01.023
[13]
Pandey P, Hwang W S, Udayakumar K R, et al. Programming-pulse dependence of ferroelectric partial polarization: Insights from a comparative study of PZT and HZO capacitors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2020, 67, 4482 doi: 10.1109/TED.2020.3015794
[14]
Alessandri C, Pandey P, Abusleme A, et al. Switching dynamics of ferroelectric Zr-doped HfO2. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39, 1780 doi: 10.1109/LED.2018.2872124
[15]
Fina I, Fàbrega L, Langenberg E, et al. Nonferroelectric contributions to the hysteresis cycles in manganite thin films: A comparative study of measurement techniques. J Appl Phys, 2011, 109, 074105 doi: 10.1063/1.3555098
[16]
Degraeve R, Ogier J L, Bellens R, et al. A new model for the field dependence of intrinsic and extrinsic time-dependent dielectric breakdown. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 1998, 45, 472 doi: 10.1109/16.658683
[17]
Yamaguchi M, Fujii S, Kamimuta Y, et al. Impact of specific failure mechanisms on endurance improvement for HfO2-based ferroelectric tunnel junction memory. 2018 IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2018, 6D.2 doi: 10.1109/IRPS.2018.8353633
[18]
Lee Y H, Kim H J, Moon T, et al. Preparation and characterization of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2thin films grown by reactive sputtering. Nanotechnology, 2017, 28, 305703 doi: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa7624
[19]
Park M H, Kim H J, Kim Y J, et al. Study on the size effect in Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films thinner than 8 nm before and after wake-up field cycling. Appl Phys Lett, 2015, 107, 192907 doi: 10.1063/1.4935588
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    Received: 01 June 2021 Revised: 14 July 2021 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 21 October 2021Uncorrected proof: 04 November 2021Published: 04 January 2022

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      Zhaomeng Gao, Shuxian Lyu, Hangbing Lyu. Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/014102 Z M Gao, S Lyu, H Lyu, Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors[J]. J. Semicond., 2022, 43(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/014102.Export: BibTex EndNote
      Citation:
      Zhaomeng Gao, Shuxian Lyu, Hangbing Lyu. Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/014102

      Z M Gao, S Lyu, H Lyu, Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors[J]. J. Semicond., 2022, 43(1): 014102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/014102.
      Export: BibTex EndNote

      Frequency dependence on polarization switching measurement in ferroelectric capacitors

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/1/014102
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      • Zhaomeng Gao:received his M.D. in the Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, China, in 2018. He is currently studying for a Ph.D. degree in the Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Device & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. His research interests include the preparation, testing and application of ultra-thin traditional and hafnia-based ferroelectric thin films
      • Hangbing Lyu:senior member of IEEE, currently serves as a full professor in Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMECAS). His major interests include resistive switching memory, hafnia-based ferroelectric memory, hardware security, and new paradigm computing. He has authored or co-authored more than 150 journal papers in Nature Communications, Advanced Materials, IEEE Electron Device Letters, as well as 18 top-rank conference papers in IEDM, VLSI Symposium, and ISSCC. He was selected as a Distinguished Young Scholar of the National Science Foundation, and currently serves as a TPC member of International Memory Workshop (IMW)
      • Corresponding author: lvhangbing@ime.ac.cn
      • Received Date: 2021-06-01
      • Revised Date: 2021-07-14
      • Published Date: 2022-01-10

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