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Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance

Yong Zhang1, and David J. Smith2,

+ Author Affiliations

 Corresponding author: Yong Zhang, yong.zhang@uncc.edu; David J. Smith, dsmith1@asu.edu

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Abstract: Despite the long history of research that has focused on the role of defects on device performance, the studies have not always been fruitful. A major reason is because these defect studies have typically been conducted in a parallel mode wherein the semiconductor wafer was divided into multiple pieces for separate optical and structural characterization, as well as device fabrication and evaluation. The major limitation of this approach was that either the defect being investigated by structural characterization techniques was not the same defect that was affecting the device performance or else the defect was not characterized under normal device operating conditions. In this review, we describe a more comprehensive approach to defect study, namely a series mode, using an array of spatially-resolved optical, electrical, and structural characterization techniques, all at the individual defect level but applied sequentially on a fabricated device. This novel sequential approach enables definitive answers to key questions, such as: (i) how do individual defects affect device performance? (ii) how does the impact depend on the device operation conditions? (iii) how does the impact vary from one defect to another? Implementation of this different approach is illustrated by the study of individual threading dislocation defects in GaAs solar cells. Additionally, we briefly describe a 3-D Raman thermometry method that can also be used for investigating the roles of defects in high power devices and device failure mechanisms.

Key words: device performancepoint defectsextended defects



[1]
Kittel C. Introduction to solid state physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005
[2]
Lannoo M, Bourgoin J. Point defects in semiconductors I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1981
[3]
Bourgoin J, Lannoo M. Point defects in semiconductors II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1983
[4]
Holt D B, Yacobi B G. Extended defects in semiconductors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007
[5]
Gfroerer T H, Zhang Y, Wanlass M W. An extended defect as a sensor for free carrier diffusion in a semiconductor. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 012114 doi: 10.1063/1.4775369
[6]
Zhang F, Castaneda J F, Chen S S, et al. Comparative studies of optoelectrical properties of prominent PV materials: Halide perovskite, CdTe, and GaAs. Mater Today, 2020, 36, 18 doi: 10.1016/j.mattod.2020.01.001
[7]
Lin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z Q, et al. Interplay of point defects, extended defects, and carrier localization in the efficiency droop of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes investigated using spatially resolved electroluminescence and photoluminescence. J Appl Phys, 2014, 115, 023103 doi: 10.1063/1.4861150
[8]
Petroff P, Hartman R L. Defect structure introduced during operation of heterojunction GaAs lasers. Appl Phys Lett, 1973, 23, 469 doi: 10.1063/1.1654962
[9]
Kurtsiefer C, Mayer S, Zarda P, et al. Stable solid-state source of single photons. Phys Rev Lett, 2000, 85, 290 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.290
[10]
Francoeur S, Klem J F, Mascarenhas A. Optical spectroscopy of single impurity centers in semiconductors. Phys Rev Lett, 2004, 93, 067403 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.067403
[11]
Romero M J, Du H, Teeter G, et al. Comparative study of the luminescence and intrinsic point defects in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and chalcopyrite Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films used in photovoltaic applications. Phys Rev B, 2011, 84, 165324 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.165324
[12]
Alberi K, Fluegel B, Moutinho H, et al. Measuring long-range carrier diffusion across multiple grains in polycrystalline semiconductors by photoluminescence imaging. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 2699 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3699
[13]
Liu H N, Zhang Y, Chen Y P, et al. Confocal micro-PL mapping of defects in CdTe epilayers grown on Si (211) substrates with different annealing cycles. J Electron Mater, 2014, 43, 2854 doi: 10.1007/s11664-014-3129-y
[14]
Fluegel B, Alberi K, DiNezza M J, et al. Carrier decay and diffusion dynamics in single-crystalline CdTe as seen via microphotoluminescence. Phys Rev Applied, 2014, 2, 034010 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.2.034010
[15]
Kuciauskas D, Myers T H, Barnes T M, et al. Time-resolved correlative optical microscopy of charge-carrier transport, recombination, and space-charge fields in CdTe heterostructures. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110, 083905 doi: 10.1063/1.4976696
[16]
Xu X, Beckman S P, Specht P, et al. Distortion and segregation in a dislocation core region at atomic resolution. Phys Rev Lett, 2005, 95, 145501 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.145501
[17]
Smith D J, Aoki T, Mardinly J, et al. Exploring aberration-corrected electron microscopy for compound semiconductors. Microscopy, 2013, 62, S65 doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dft011
[18]
Li C, Wu Y L, Pennycook T J, et al. Carrier separation at dislocation pairs in CdTe. Phys Rev Lett, 2013, 111, 096403 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.096403
[19]
Hauer B, Marvinney C E, Lewin M, et al. Exploiting phonon-resonant near-field interaction for the nanoscale investigation of extended defects. Adv Funct Mater, 2020, 30, 1907357 doi: 10.1002/adfm.201907357
[20]
Chen Q, McKeon B S, Zhang S Y, et al. Impact of individual structural defects in GaAs solar cells: A correlative and in operando investigation of signatures, structures, and effects. Adv Opt Mater, 2021, 9, 2001487 doi: 10.1002/adom.202001487
[21]
Chen Q, McKeon B S, Becker J, et al. Correlative characterization of dislocation defects and defect clusters in GaAs and CdTe solar cells by spatially resolved optical techniques and high-resolution TEM. 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2018, 3234
[22]
Chen Q, Zhang Y. The reversal of the laser-beam-induced-current contrast with varying illumination density in a Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cell. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103, 242104 doi: 10.1063/1.4844815
[23]
Lin C H, Merz T A, Doutt D R, et al. Strain and temperature dependence of defect formation at AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on a nanometer scale. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2012, 59, 2667 doi: 10.1109/TED.2012.2206595
[24]
Park T, Guan Y J, Liu Z Q, et al. In operando micro-Raman three-dimensional thermometry with diffraction-limit spatial resolution for GaN-based light-emitting diodes. Phys Rev Appl, 2018, 10, 034049 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.034049
[25]
Chen F, Zhang Y, Gfroerer T H, et al. Spatial resolution versus data acquisition efficiency in mapping an inhomogeneous system with species diffusion. Sci Rep, 2015, 5, 10542 doi: 10.1038/srep10542
[26]
Hu C, Chen Q, Chen F, et al. Overcoming diffusion-related limitations in semiconductor defect imaging with phonon-plasmon-coupled mode Raman scattering. Light Sci Appl, 2018, 7, 23 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0016-y
[27]
Irmer G, Wenzel M, Monecke J. Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra ofp-type GaAs:Zn. Phys Rev B, 1997, 56, 9524 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.9524
[28]
Mooradian A, Wright G B. Observation of the interaction of plasmons with longitudinal optical phonons in GaAs. Phys Rev Lett, 1966, 16, 999 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.16.999
[29]
Green M A. Silicon solar cells. University of New South Wales, Sydney, 1995
[30]
Paetzold O, Irmer G, Monecke J, et al. Micro Raman study of dislocations in n-type doped GaAs. J Raman Spectrosc, 1993, 24, 761 doi: 10.1002/jrs.1250241107
[31]
Martín P, Jiménez J, Frigeri C, et al. A study of the dislocations in Si-doped GaAs comparing diluted Sirtl light etching, electron-beam-induced current, and micro-Raman techniques. J Mater Res, 1999, 14, 1732 doi: 10.1557/JMR.1999.0235
[32]
Chang K S, Yang S C, Kim J Y, et al. Precise temperature mapping of GaN-based LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography. Sensors, 2012, 12, 4648 doi: 10.3390/s120404648
[33]
Wu D T, Busse G. Lock-in thermography for nondestructive evaluation of materials. Revue Générale De Thermique, 1998, 37, 693
[34]
Dallas J, Pavlidis G, Chatterjee B, et al. Thermal characterization of gallium nitride p-i-n diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 073503 doi: 10.1063/1.5006796
[35]
Senawiratne J, Li Y, Zhu M, et al. Junction temperature measurements and thermal modeling of GaInN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes. J Electron Mater, 2008, 37, 607 doi: 10.1007/s11664-007-0370-7
[36]
Lin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z, et al. Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 101, 252103 doi: 10.1063/1.4772549
[37]
Peri P, Fu K, Fu H Q, et al. Structural breakdown in high power GaN-on-GaN p-n diode devices stressed to failure. J Vac Sci Technol A, 2020, 38, 063402 doi: 10.1116/6.0000488
Fig. 1.  (Color online) The parallel mode of defect characterization – wafer is cut into pieces for separate studies. Examples used are only for demonstration purposes. They are not necessarily obtained from the same wafer.

Fig. 2.  (Color online) Series mode of defect study. Examples used are only for demonstration purposes. They are not necessarily obtained from the same device.

Fig. 3.  (Color online) Correlative optical characterization of dislocation defects in a GaAs solar cell. (a) EL image using a 50×/NA0.5 LWD lens for device #5-2, showing a cluster of defects. (b) Optical image of the same area of (a) where red dots indicate defect locations. (c) PL mapping near the defect cluster using a 100×/NA0.9 lens with beam size approximately shown by the size of the red dot in (b). (d) PL spectra from typical defect-free location and the largest defect (#5-2A). (e) Raman mapping near the largest defect (#5-2A). (f) Raman spectra from a typical defect-free location and the largest defect in (e). (reproduced with permission[20])

Fig. 4.  (Color online) Impact of a defect on solar cell characteristic: left axes for I–V curves (discrete points are experimental data, black solid curves are fitting results), right axes for P–V curves (calculated from experimental data). (a) Cell #5 illuminated under approximate one sun. (b–d) Comparison between a defect-free site and defect site #5-2A, illuminated with a 532 nm focused laser beam under three different laser powers. (reproduced with permission[20])

Fig. 5.  (Color online) Comparison of different defects. (a, b) PL and Raman mapping of defect #5-2B and #5-2C. (c, d) PL and Raman mapping of defect #5-3A. (e, f) PL and Raman spectra of defect #5-2A-C and #5-3A, and a defect-free site. (g, h) The same in I–V characteristic under two illumination powers. (reproduced with permission[20])

Fig. 6.  (Color online) TEM images of defect #5-2A. (a) Low magnification image of defective region. (b) Enlargement taken from the area indicated by the yellow box in (a). (c–h) High-resolution images of areas indicated in (a): (c) from area 1; (d–f) from area 3 with different magnification, where in (e) the end of the stacking fault marked by a black square ends in a 30° partial dislocation while the other end terminates in a 90° partial dislocation, and in (f) enlarged view of the area marked by the black square has a single atomic column of arsenic atoms at the core of the 30° partial dislocation (marked by white arrow). (g, h) from area 4: (g) 60° dislocation near top of the image. The extra half-plane of paired columns is indicated with a white line. (h) Enlarged view of 60° dislocation in (g). Burgers circuit is shown in white with the resulting Burgers vector shown in red. The extra half-plane is marked in black. (reproduced with permission[20])

Fig. 7.  (Color online) TEM images of defect #5-3A. (a) Low magnification image of defective region (note the triangular-shaped pit beneath sample surface adjacent to the defect cluster); (b) HAADF image, and (c) LABF image, showing major intersection of stacking defects and dislocations; (d) Aberration-corrected LABF STEM image of an intrinsic stacking fault terminated by a 30° partial dislocation as identified by the Burgers′ circuit shown in yellow. Single As atomic column (circled) at the defect core. (reproduced with permission[20])

Fig. 8.  (Color online) Top and cross-sectional images of the LED, and temperature probing points on the device cross section. (a) Top view of optical microscope image, (b) cross-sectional SEM image, (c) cross-sectional schematic drawing showing the measured locations (blue dots) at four different depths, and (d) a cross-sectional TEM image from a similar device. (reproduced with permission[24])

Fig. 9.  (Color online) 3D temperature profile sampling results. (a) Cross-sectional temperature contours calculated from the intensity ratio of Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering and Raman spectra of a few extreme points (no. 1 to no. 4) below. (b) Average temperatures at different depths. (c) Scattered plots of temperatures at two types of sites (“top” and “valley”) at the first depth. (reproduced with permission[24])

Fig. 10.  (Color online) Plan-view SEM image showing two distinct failure modes in GaN power devices stressed to breakdown: i) Black: deep cracks and surface crater; ii) Red: cracks branching out from device.

Table 1.   Summary of characterization results for defect #5-2A. The first row is for the macroscopic results of #5 as a whole, measured under approximate 1 sun (~850 W/m2). The remaining rows are microscopic results measured using a diffraction-limit laser beam of 532 nm. The error bars are given as superscripts for the key parameters. The efficiency values in parentheses have been corrected for the reflectance loss (R = 0.29 @532 nm). (reproduced with permission[20])

PL
(µW)
SiteIsc
(µA)
Voc
(mV)
FFη
(%)
I0
(pA)
nRsh
(MΩ)
Rs
(10–3 Ω)
652Whole
cell
125 ± 0.2893 ± 0.10.799 ± 0.00313.7 ± 0.1
(~19.3)
0.7781.834.750.90
213Defect-free66.9 ± 0.3822 ± 0.50.766 ± 0.00719.8 ± 0.1
(27.9)
17.92.111.573.93
Defect21.7 ± 0.3762 ± 0.50.708 ± 0.025.49 ± 0.1
(7.73)
20.12.150.3563.82
18.5Defect-free7.03 ± 0.02701 ± 0.50.728 ± 0.01119.4 ± 0.2
(27.3)
11.12.044.761.71
Defect2.72 ± 0.02655 ± 0.50.674 ± 0.0226.49 ± 0.16
(9.14)
7.882.012.086.43
1.82Defect-free0.468 ± 0.04556 ± 20.653 ± 0.0679.34 ± 0.55
(13.2)
21.02.217.094.82
Defect0.194 ± 0.04510 ± 80.546 ± 0.1462.97 ± 0.44
(4.18)
5.112.055.082.83
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[1]
Kittel C. Introduction to solid state physics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2005
[2]
Lannoo M, Bourgoin J. Point defects in semiconductors I. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1981
[3]
Bourgoin J, Lannoo M. Point defects in semiconductors II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1983
[4]
Holt D B, Yacobi B G. Extended defects in semiconductors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007
[5]
Gfroerer T H, Zhang Y, Wanlass M W. An extended defect as a sensor for free carrier diffusion in a semiconductor. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 102, 012114 doi: 10.1063/1.4775369
[6]
Zhang F, Castaneda J F, Chen S S, et al. Comparative studies of optoelectrical properties of prominent PV materials: Halide perovskite, CdTe, and GaAs. Mater Today, 2020, 36, 18 doi: 10.1016/j.mattod.2020.01.001
[7]
Lin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z Q, et al. Interplay of point defects, extended defects, and carrier localization in the efficiency droop of InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes investigated using spatially resolved electroluminescence and photoluminescence. J Appl Phys, 2014, 115, 023103 doi: 10.1063/1.4861150
[8]
Petroff P, Hartman R L. Defect structure introduced during operation of heterojunction GaAs lasers. Appl Phys Lett, 1973, 23, 469 doi: 10.1063/1.1654962
[9]
Kurtsiefer C, Mayer S, Zarda P, et al. Stable solid-state source of single photons. Phys Rev Lett, 2000, 85, 290 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.290
[10]
Francoeur S, Klem J F, Mascarenhas A. Optical spectroscopy of single impurity centers in semiconductors. Phys Rev Lett, 2004, 93, 067403 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.067403
[11]
Romero M J, Du H, Teeter G, et al. Comparative study of the luminescence and intrinsic point defects in the kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 and chalcopyrite Cu(In, Ga)Se2 thin films used in photovoltaic applications. Phys Rev B, 2011, 84, 165324 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.165324
[12]
Alberi K, Fluegel B, Moutinho H, et al. Measuring long-range carrier diffusion across multiple grains in polycrystalline semiconductors by photoluminescence imaging. Nat Commun, 2013, 4, 2699 doi: 10.1038/ncomms3699
[13]
Liu H N, Zhang Y, Chen Y P, et al. Confocal micro-PL mapping of defects in CdTe epilayers grown on Si (211) substrates with different annealing cycles. J Electron Mater, 2014, 43, 2854 doi: 10.1007/s11664-014-3129-y
[14]
Fluegel B, Alberi K, DiNezza M J, et al. Carrier decay and diffusion dynamics in single-crystalline CdTe as seen via microphotoluminescence. Phys Rev Applied, 2014, 2, 034010 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.2.034010
[15]
Kuciauskas D, Myers T H, Barnes T M, et al. Time-resolved correlative optical microscopy of charge-carrier transport, recombination, and space-charge fields in CdTe heterostructures. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110, 083905 doi: 10.1063/1.4976696
[16]
Xu X, Beckman S P, Specht P, et al. Distortion and segregation in a dislocation core region at atomic resolution. Phys Rev Lett, 2005, 95, 145501 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.145501
[17]
Smith D J, Aoki T, Mardinly J, et al. Exploring aberration-corrected electron microscopy for compound semiconductors. Microscopy, 2013, 62, S65 doi: 10.1093/jmicro/dft011
[18]
Li C, Wu Y L, Pennycook T J, et al. Carrier separation at dislocation pairs in CdTe. Phys Rev Lett, 2013, 111, 096403 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.096403
[19]
Hauer B, Marvinney C E, Lewin M, et al. Exploiting phonon-resonant near-field interaction for the nanoscale investigation of extended defects. Adv Funct Mater, 2020, 30, 1907357 doi: 10.1002/adfm.201907357
[20]
Chen Q, McKeon B S, Zhang S Y, et al. Impact of individual structural defects in GaAs solar cells: A correlative and in operando investigation of signatures, structures, and effects. Adv Opt Mater, 2021, 9, 2001487 doi: 10.1002/adom.202001487
[21]
Chen Q, McKeon B S, Becker J, et al. Correlative characterization of dislocation defects and defect clusters in GaAs and CdTe solar cells by spatially resolved optical techniques and high-resolution TEM. 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, 2018, 3234
[22]
Chen Q, Zhang Y. The reversal of the laser-beam-induced-current contrast with varying illumination density in a Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin-film solar cell. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103, 242104 doi: 10.1063/1.4844815
[23]
Lin C H, Merz T A, Doutt D R, et al. Strain and temperature dependence of defect formation at AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on a nanometer scale. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2012, 59, 2667 doi: 10.1109/TED.2012.2206595
[24]
Park T, Guan Y J, Liu Z Q, et al. In operando micro-Raman three-dimensional thermometry with diffraction-limit spatial resolution for GaN-based light-emitting diodes. Phys Rev Appl, 2018, 10, 034049 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.10.034049
[25]
Chen F, Zhang Y, Gfroerer T H, et al. Spatial resolution versus data acquisition efficiency in mapping an inhomogeneous system with species diffusion. Sci Rep, 2015, 5, 10542 doi: 10.1038/srep10542
[26]
Hu C, Chen Q, Chen F, et al. Overcoming diffusion-related limitations in semiconductor defect imaging with phonon-plasmon-coupled mode Raman scattering. Light Sci Appl, 2018, 7, 23 doi: 10.1038/s41377-018-0016-y
[27]
Irmer G, Wenzel M, Monecke J. Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra ofp-type GaAs:Zn. Phys Rev B, 1997, 56, 9524 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.9524
[28]
Mooradian A, Wright G B. Observation of the interaction of plasmons with longitudinal optical phonons in GaAs. Phys Rev Lett, 1966, 16, 999 doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.16.999
[29]
Green M A. Silicon solar cells. University of New South Wales, Sydney, 1995
[30]
Paetzold O, Irmer G, Monecke J, et al. Micro Raman study of dislocations in n-type doped GaAs. J Raman Spectrosc, 1993, 24, 761 doi: 10.1002/jrs.1250241107
[31]
Martín P, Jiménez J, Frigeri C, et al. A study of the dislocations in Si-doped GaAs comparing diluted Sirtl light etching, electron-beam-induced current, and micro-Raman techniques. J Mater Res, 1999, 14, 1732 doi: 10.1557/JMR.1999.0235
[32]
Chang K S, Yang S C, Kim J Y, et al. Precise temperature mapping of GaN-based LEDs by quantitative infrared micro-thermography. Sensors, 2012, 12, 4648 doi: 10.3390/s120404648
[33]
Wu D T, Busse G. Lock-in thermography for nondestructive evaluation of materials. Revue Générale De Thermique, 1998, 37, 693
[34]
Dallas J, Pavlidis G, Chatterjee B, et al. Thermal characterization of gallium nitride p-i-n diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2018, 112, 073503 doi: 10.1063/1.5006796
[35]
Senawiratne J, Li Y, Zhu M, et al. Junction temperature measurements and thermal modeling of GaInN/GaN quantum well light-emitting diodes. J Electron Mater, 2008, 37, 607 doi: 10.1007/s11664-007-0370-7
[36]
Lin Y, Zhang Y, Liu Z, et al. Spatially resolved study of quantum efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 101, 252103 doi: 10.1063/1.4772549
[37]
Peri P, Fu K, Fu H Q, et al. Structural breakdown in high power GaN-on-GaN p-n diode devices stressed to failure. J Vac Sci Technol A, 2020, 38, 063402 doi: 10.1116/6.0000488
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    Received: 25 February 2022 Revised: 17 March 2022 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 26 March 2022Uncorrected proof: 28 March 2022Published: 18 April 2022

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      Yong Zhang, David J. Smith. Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(4): 041102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/4/041102 Y Zhang, D J Smith. Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance[J]. J. Semicond, 2022, 43(4): 041102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/4/041102Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Yong Zhang, David J. Smith. Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2022, 43(4): 041102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/4/041102

      Y Zhang, D J Smith. Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance[J]. J. Semicond, 2022, 43(4): 041102. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/4/041102
      Export: BibTex EndNote

      Comprehensive, in operando, and correlative investigation of defects and their impact on device performance

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/43/4/041102
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      • Yong Zhang:received the Ph.D. from Dartmouth College in Physics in 1994. He was a Senior Scientist at National Renewable Energy Laboratory. He is Bissell Distinguished Professor with ECE Department, UNC-Charlotte, USA. He is an APS Fellow. His research interests include electronic and optical properties of semiconductors and related nanostructures, organic-inorganic hybrid materials, impurity and defects in semiconductors
      • David J. Smith:received the Ph.D. (1978) and D.Sc. (1988) from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He is currently Regents’ Professor with the Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, USA. His research interests include the development and applications of advanced electron microscopy methods to the study of contemporary materials, including semiconductor heterostructures and many types of nanostructures
      • Corresponding author: yong.zhang@uncc.edudsmith1@asu.edu
      • Received Date: 2022-02-25
      • Revised Date: 2022-03-17
      • Available Online: 2022-03-26

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