J. Semicond. > Volume 36 > Issue 6 > Article Number: 065009

A fully integrated CMOS VCXO-IC with low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity

Yanjun Yang , and Yun Zeng

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Abstract: This paper describes a low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity CMOS voltage controlled crystal oscillator IC (VCXO-IC) with LVCMOS or LVPECL output. A differential coupled frequency doubling Colpitts oscillator is adopted to obtain low noise 2 × frequency output. A wide tuning range and high linearity are simultaneously achieved by using MOS varactor arrays. The measurement results show that the designed VCXO-IC achieves-134 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset frequency and ± 135 ppm output frequency tuning range within 3% linearity by using 40 MHz fundamental AT-cut crystal. The VCXO-IC is fabricated in the chartered 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and occupies a total silicon area of 2.4 mm2.

Key words: VCXOvaractorlinear frequency tuninglow phase noise

Abstract: This paper describes a low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity CMOS voltage controlled crystal oscillator IC (VCXO-IC) with LVCMOS or LVPECL output. A differential coupled frequency doubling Colpitts oscillator is adopted to obtain low noise 2 × frequency output. A wide tuning range and high linearity are simultaneously achieved by using MOS varactor arrays. The measurement results show that the designed VCXO-IC achieves-134 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset frequency and ± 135 ppm output frequency tuning range within 3% linearity by using 40 MHz fundamental AT-cut crystal. The VCXO-IC is fabricated in the chartered 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and occupies a total silicon area of 2.4 mm2.

Key words: VCXOvaractorlinear frequency tuninglow phase noise



References:

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[5]

Rohde U L, Poddar A K. Noise minimization techniques for voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) circuits[J]. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, 2009: 280.

[6]

Hong J P, Lee S G. Low phase noise G-boosted differential gate-to-source feedback Colpitts CMOS VCO[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(11): 3079.

[7]

Ghouchani S. A wideband millimeter-wave frequency doubler-tripler in 0[J]. IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2010-65.

[8]

Wu Y, Chen X, Wu H. Design of a 4-12 GHz frequency doubler MMIC based on InGaP/GaAs HBT process[J]. International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT), 2010: 1045.

[9]

Barker R W J. BJT frequency doubling with sinusoidal output[J]. Electron Lett, 1975, 11(5): 106.

[10]

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[11]

Soltanian B, Kinget P. AM-FM conversion by the active devices in MOS LC-VCOs and its effect on the optimal amplitude[J]. IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2006: 4.

[12]

Levantino S, Samori C, Bonfanti A. Frequency dependence on bias current in 5 GHz CMOS VCOs: impact on tuning range and flicker noise upconversion[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2002, 37(8): 1003.

[13]

Hegazi E, Abidi A A. Varactor characteristics, oscillator tuning curves, and AM-FM conversion[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2003, 38(6): 1033.

[14]

Ismail A, Abidi A A. CMOS differential LC oscillator with suppressed up-converted flicker noise[J]. IEEE ISSCC Tech Dig, 2003: 98.

[15]

Rael J J, Abidi A A. Physical processes of phase noise in differential LC oscillators[J]. Proceedings of the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2000: 569.

[16]

Shanan H N, Kennedy M P. A technique to reduce flicker noise up-conversion in CMOS LC voltage-controlled oscillators[J]. IEEE Proceeding of the 30th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2004: 123.

[17]

Takahashi Y, Shinotsuka T, Kunitomo H. A low noise, wide variable range and high linearity VCXO-IC using linearity designable on-chip varactor arrays for fundamental AT-cut crystal resonators[J]. IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (FCS), 2014: 1.

[1]

Rohde U L, Klage G. Recent advances in linear VCO calculations, VCO design and spurious analyses of fractional-N synthesizers[J]. Microwave & RF Magazine, 2000: 57.

[2]

Rohde U L, Poddar A K, Böck G. The design of modern microwave oscillators for wireless applications: theory and optimization[J]. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

[3]

Balan V, Pan T. A crystal oscillator with automatic amplitude control and digitally controlled pulling range of ± 100 ppm[J]. IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2002, 5.

[4]

Rohde U L, Poddar A K. Mode-selection and mode-feedback techniques optimizes VCXO (voltage controlled crystal oscillator) performances[J]. IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, 2008: 1.

[5]

Rohde U L, Poddar A K. Noise minimization techniques for voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) circuits[J]. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, 2009: 280.

[6]

Hong J P, Lee S G. Low phase noise G-boosted differential gate-to-source feedback Colpitts CMOS VCO[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(11): 3079.

[7]

Ghouchani S. A wideband millimeter-wave frequency doubler-tripler in 0[J]. IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2010-65.

[8]

Wu Y, Chen X, Wu H. Design of a 4-12 GHz frequency doubler MMIC based on InGaP/GaAs HBT process[J]. International Conference on Microwave and Millimeter Wave Technology (ICMMT), 2010: 1045.

[9]

Barker R W J. BJT frequency doubling with sinusoidal output[J]. Electron Lett, 1975, 11(5): 106.

[10]

Razavi B. Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits[J]. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2002.

[11]

Soltanian B, Kinget P. AM-FM conversion by the active devices in MOS LC-VCOs and its effect on the optimal amplitude[J]. IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 2006: 4.

[12]

Levantino S, Samori C, Bonfanti A. Frequency dependence on bias current in 5 GHz CMOS VCOs: impact on tuning range and flicker noise upconversion[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2002, 37(8): 1003.

[13]

Hegazi E, Abidi A A. Varactor characteristics, oscillator tuning curves, and AM-FM conversion[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2003, 38(6): 1033.

[14]

Ismail A, Abidi A A. CMOS differential LC oscillator with suppressed up-converted flicker noise[J]. IEEE ISSCC Tech Dig, 2003: 98.

[15]

Rael J J, Abidi A A. Physical processes of phase noise in differential LC oscillators[J]. Proceedings of the IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2000: 569.

[16]

Shanan H N, Kennedy M P. A technique to reduce flicker noise up-conversion in CMOS LC voltage-controlled oscillators[J]. IEEE Proceeding of the 30th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2004: 123.

[17]

Takahashi Y, Shinotsuka T, Kunitomo H. A low noise, wide variable range and high linearity VCXO-IC using linearity designable on-chip varactor arrays for fundamental AT-cut crystal resonators[J]. IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (FCS), 2014: 1.

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Y J Yang, Y Zeng. A fully integrated CMOS VCXO-IC with low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity[J]. J. Semicond., 2015, 36(6): 065009. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/6/065009.

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Manuscript received: 02 November 2014 Manuscript revised: Online: Published: 01 June 2015

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