J. Semicond. > Volume 37 > Issue 11 > Article Number: 113001

Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol-gel dip coating process

N. Boukhenoufa 1, , R. Mahamdi 1, and D. Rechem 2,

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Abstract: In this work, sol-gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

Key words: sol-gel dip-coatingdoped ZnOoptoelectronictransmittanceRMSresistivity

Abstract: In this work, sol-gel dip-coating technique was used to elaborate ZnO pure and ZnO/Al films. The impact of Al-doped concentration on the structural, optical, surface morphological and electrical properties of the elaborated samples was investigated. It was found that better electrical and optical performances have been obtained for an Al concentration equal to 5%, where the ZnO thin films exhibit a resistivity value equal to 1.64104 Ω·cm. Moreover, highest transparency has been recorded for the same Al concentration value. The obtained results from this investigation make the developed thin film structure a potential candidate for high optoelectronic performance applications.

Key words: sol-gel dip-coatingdoped ZnOoptoelectronictransmittanceRMSresistivity



References:

[1]

Aydemir S, Karakaya S. Effects of withdrawal speed on the structural and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films[J]. J Magn Magn Mater, 2015, 373: 33. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.01.077

[2]

Sun Guipeng, Yan Jinliang, Niu Peijiang. Electronic structure and optical property of p-type Zn-doped SnO2 with Sn vacancy[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2016, 37(2): 023005. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/2/023005

[3]

Ozgur U, Alivov Y I, Liu C. A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices[J]. J Appl Phys, 2005, 98(4): 041301. doi: 10.1063/1.1992666

[4]

Shewale P S, Yu Y S. Growth-temperature-dependent optical and acetone detection properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(7): 073001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/7/073001

[5]

Benhaliliba M, Tiburcio-Silver A, Avila-Garcia A. The sprayed ZnO films:nanostructures and physical parameters[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(8): 083001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/8/083001

[6]

Suvaci E, Özer İ Ö. Processing of textured zinc oxide varistors via templated grain growth[J]. J Eur Ceram Soc, 2005, 25: 1663. doi: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2004.05.026

[7]

Liang S, Sheng H, Liu Y. ZnO Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2001, 225: 110. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(01)00830-2

[8]

Pan Z, Tian X, Hu J. Investigation of optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Process, 2013, 16: 587. doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2012.06.020

[9]

Qu X, Lu S, Jia D. First-principles study of the electronic structure of Al and Sn co-doping ZnO system[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Process, 2013, 16: 1057. doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2013.04.002

[10]

Tian X, Pan Z, Zhang H. Growth and characterization of the Al-doped and Al-Sn co-doped ZnO nanostructures[J]. Ceram Int, 2013, 39: 6497. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.01.081

[11]

Huang M C, Wang T H, Cheng S H. The structure and photoelectrochemistry of Al, Ti co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process[J]. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett, 2014, 6: 210. doi: 10.1166/nnl.2014.1754

[12]

Oleynik N, Adam M, Krtschil A. MOVPE growth and characterization of ZnO properties for optoelectronic applications[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2003, 248: 14. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01879-1

[13]

Caglar Y, Caglar M, Ilikan S. Microstructural, optical and electrical studies on sol-gel derived ZnO and ZnO:Al films[J]. Curr Appl Phys, 2012, 12(8): 963.

[14]

Xu Z Q, Deng H, Li Y. Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on Al doped ZnO films prepared by sol-gel method[J]. Appl Surf Sci, 2006, 253: 476. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.12.113

[15]

uo S Y, Chen W C, Lai F I.. Effects of doping concentration and annealing temperature on properties of highly-oriented Aldoped ZnO films[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2006, 287(1): 78. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.047

[16]

Benouis C E, Benhaliliba M, Juareze A S. The effect of indium doping on structural, electrical conductivity, photoconductivity and density of states properties of ZnO films[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010, 490: 62. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.10.098

[17]

Hsu L S, Yeh C S, Kuo C C. Optical and transport properties of undoped and Al-, Ga-and In-doped ZnO thin films[J]. J Optoelectron Adv Mater, 2005, 7(6): 3039.

[18]

Caglar Y, Ilican S, Caglar M. Effects of In, Al and Sn dopants on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Spectrochim Acta, 2007, 67: 1113. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2006.09.035

[19]

Lucio-Lopez M A, Luna-Arias M A, Maldonado A. Doublelayer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis[J]. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells, 2006, 90: 733. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2005.04.010

[20]

Ratheesh Kumar P M, SudhaKartha C, Vijayakumar K P. Doping of spray-pyrolyzed ZnO thin films through direct diffusion of indium:structural optical and electrical studies[J]. J Appl Phys, 2012, 98: 023509.

[21]

Xue S W, Zu X T, Zhou W L. Effects of post-thermal annealing on the optical constants of ZnO thin film[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2008, 448: 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.10.076

[22]

Ghosh R, Paul G K, Basak D. Structural and optical characterization of high-quality ZnO[J]. Materials Research Bulletin, 2005, 40: 190.

[23]

Arif A, Belahssen O, Gareh S. Influence of precursor molarity on the optical properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(1): 013001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/1/013001

[24]

Mahmood K, Amin N, Ali A. Enhancement of phosphorssolubility in ZnO by thermal annealing[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(12): 123001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/12/123001

[25]

Ghosh D S, Chena T L, Formica N. High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics[J]. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2012, 107: 338. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2012.07.009

[26]

Zhanchang P, Xinlong T, Guanghui H. Investigation of optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films[J]. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2013, 587: 592.

[1]

Aydemir S, Karakaya S. Effects of withdrawal speed on the structural and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films[J]. J Magn Magn Mater, 2015, 373: 33. doi: 10.1016/j.jmmm.2014.01.077

[2]

Sun Guipeng, Yan Jinliang, Niu Peijiang. Electronic structure and optical property of p-type Zn-doped SnO2 with Sn vacancy[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2016, 37(2): 023005. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/2/023005

[3]

Ozgur U, Alivov Y I, Liu C. A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices[J]. J Appl Phys, 2005, 98(4): 041301. doi: 10.1063/1.1992666

[4]

Shewale P S, Yu Y S. Growth-temperature-dependent optical and acetone detection properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(7): 073001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/7/073001

[5]

Benhaliliba M, Tiburcio-Silver A, Avila-Garcia A. The sprayed ZnO films:nanostructures and physical parameters[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(8): 083001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/8/083001

[6]

Suvaci E, Özer İ Ö. Processing of textured zinc oxide varistors via templated grain growth[J]. J Eur Ceram Soc, 2005, 25: 1663. doi: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2004.05.026

[7]

Liang S, Sheng H, Liu Y. ZnO Schottky ultraviolet photodetectors[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2001, 225: 110. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(01)00830-2

[8]

Pan Z, Tian X, Hu J. Investigation of optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Process, 2013, 16: 587. doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2012.06.020

[9]

Qu X, Lu S, Jia D. First-principles study of the electronic structure of Al and Sn co-doping ZnO system[J]. Mater Sci Semicond Process, 2013, 16: 1057. doi: 10.1016/j.mssp.2013.04.002

[10]

Tian X, Pan Z, Zhang H. Growth and characterization of the Al-doped and Al-Sn co-doped ZnO nanostructures[J]. Ceram Int, 2013, 39: 6497. doi: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.01.081

[11]

Huang M C, Wang T H, Cheng S H. The structure and photoelectrochemistry of Al, Ti co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process[J]. Nanosci Nanotechnol Lett, 2014, 6: 210. doi: 10.1166/nnl.2014.1754

[12]

Oleynik N, Adam M, Krtschil A. MOVPE growth and characterization of ZnO properties for optoelectronic applications[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2003, 248: 14. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01879-1

[13]

Caglar Y, Caglar M, Ilikan S. Microstructural, optical and electrical studies on sol-gel derived ZnO and ZnO:Al films[J]. Curr Appl Phys, 2012, 12(8): 963.

[14]

Xu Z Q, Deng H, Li Y. Ultraviolet photoconductive detector based on Al doped ZnO films prepared by sol-gel method[J]. Appl Surf Sci, 2006, 253: 476. doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2005.12.113

[15]

uo S Y, Chen W C, Lai F I.. Effects of doping concentration and annealing temperature on properties of highly-oriented Aldoped ZnO films[J]. J Cryst Growth, 2006, 287(1): 78. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.10.047

[16]

Benouis C E, Benhaliliba M, Juareze A S. The effect of indium doping on structural, electrical conductivity, photoconductivity and density of states properties of ZnO films[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2010, 490: 62. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2009.10.098

[17]

Hsu L S, Yeh C S, Kuo C C. Optical and transport properties of undoped and Al-, Ga-and In-doped ZnO thin films[J]. J Optoelectron Adv Mater, 2005, 7(6): 3039.

[18]

Caglar Y, Ilican S, Caglar M. Effects of In, Al and Sn dopants on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Spectrochim Acta, 2007, 67: 1113. doi: 10.1016/j.saa.2006.09.035

[19]

Lucio-Lopez M A, Luna-Arias M A, Maldonado A. Doublelayer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis[J]. Solar Energy Mater Solar Cells, 2006, 90: 733. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2005.04.010

[20]

Ratheesh Kumar P M, SudhaKartha C, Vijayakumar K P. Doping of spray-pyrolyzed ZnO thin films through direct diffusion of indium:structural optical and electrical studies[J]. J Appl Phys, 2012, 98: 023509.

[21]

Xue S W, Zu X T, Zhou W L. Effects of post-thermal annealing on the optical constants of ZnO thin film[J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2008, 448: 21. doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.10.076

[22]

Ghosh R, Paul G K, Basak D. Structural and optical characterization of high-quality ZnO[J]. Materials Research Bulletin, 2005, 40: 190.

[23]

Arif A, Belahssen O, Gareh S. Influence of precursor molarity on the optical properties of ZnO thin films[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(1): 013001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/1/013001

[24]

Mahmood K, Amin N, Ali A. Enhancement of phosphorssolubility in ZnO by thermal annealing[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(12): 123001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/12/123001

[25]

Ghosh D S, Chena T L, Formica N. High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics[J]. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 2012, 107: 338. doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2012.07.009

[26]

Zhanchang P, Xinlong T, Guanghui H. Investigation of optical and electronic properties in Al-Sn co-doped ZnO thin films[J]. Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, 2013, 587: 592.

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N. Boukhenoufa, R. Mahamdi, D. Rechem. Structural, optical, morphological and electrical properties of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films prepared using sol-gel dip coating process[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(11): 113001. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/113001.

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Manuscript received: 15 April 2016 Manuscript revised: 22 May 2016 Online: Published: 01 November 2016

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