J. Semicond. > Volume 40 > Issue 9 > Article Number: 092002

A gate-free MoS2 phototransistor assisted by ferroelectrics

Shuaiqin Wu 1, 2, , Guangjian Wu 1, , Xudong Wang 1, , Yan Chen 1, , Tie Lin 1, 2, , Hong Shen 1, 2, , Weida Hu 1, 2, , , Xiangjian Meng 1, 2, , Jianlu Wang 1, 2, , and Junhao Chu 1, 2,

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Abstract: During the past decades, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received special focus for their unique properties in photoelectric detection. As one important member of TMDs, MoS2 has been made into photodetector purely or combined with other materials, such as graphene, ionic liquid, and ferroelectric materials. Here, we report a gate-free MoS2 phototransistor combined with organic ferroelectric material poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). In this device, the remnant polarization field in P(VDF-TrFE) is obtained from the piezoelectric force microscope (PFM) probe with a positive or negative bias, which can turn the dipoles from disorder to be the same direction. Then, the MoS2 channel can be maintained at an accumulated state with downward polarization field modulation and a depleted state with upward polarization field modulation. Moreover, the P(VDF-TrFE) segregates MoS2 from oxygen and water molecules around surroundings, which enables a cleaner surface state. As a photodetector, an ultra-low dark current of 10–11 A, on/off ration of more than 104 and a fast photoresponse time of 120 μs are achieved. This work provides a new method to make high-performance phototransistors assisted by the ferroelectric domain which can operate without a gate electrode and demonstrates great potential for ultra-low power consumption applications.

Key words: TMDsMoS2 phototransistorP(VDF-TrFE)PFMultra-low power consumption

Abstract: During the past decades, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received special focus for their unique properties in photoelectric detection. As one important member of TMDs, MoS2 has been made into photodetector purely or combined with other materials, such as graphene, ionic liquid, and ferroelectric materials. Here, we report a gate-free MoS2 phototransistor combined with organic ferroelectric material poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)). In this device, the remnant polarization field in P(VDF-TrFE) is obtained from the piezoelectric force microscope (PFM) probe with a positive or negative bias, which can turn the dipoles from disorder to be the same direction. Then, the MoS2 channel can be maintained at an accumulated state with downward polarization field modulation and a depleted state with upward polarization field modulation. Moreover, the P(VDF-TrFE) segregates MoS2 from oxygen and water molecules around surroundings, which enables a cleaner surface state. As a photodetector, an ultra-low dark current of 10–11 A, on/off ration of more than 104 and a fast photoresponse time of 120 μs are achieved. This work provides a new method to make high-performance phototransistors assisted by the ferroelectric domain which can operate without a gate electrode and demonstrates great potential for ultra-low power consumption applications.

Key words: TMDsMoS2 phototransistorP(VDF-TrFE)PFMultra-low power consumption



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Kwon J, Hong Y K, Han G, et al. Giant photoamplification in indirect-bandgap multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with local bottom-gate structures. Adv Mater, 2015, 27(13), 2224

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Zhang W, Huang J K, Chen C H, et al. High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(25), 3456

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Wu C L, Chen J W. Chen C H, et al. A gate-free monolayer WSe2 pn diode. APS Meeting Abstracts, 2018

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Baeumer C, Saldana-Greco D, Martirez J M P, et al. Ferroelectrically driven spatial carrier density modulation in graphene. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 6136

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Wang X, Wang P, Wang J, et al. Ultrasensitive and broadband MoS2 photodetector driven by ferroelectrics. Adv Mater, 2015, 27(42), 6575

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Zhao D, Katsouras I, Asadi K, et al. Switching dynamics in ferroelectric P (VDF-TrFE) thin films. Phys Rev B, 2015, 92(21), 214115

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Lee H S, Min S W, Chang Y G, et al. MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(7), 3695

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Li H, Wu J, Yin Z, et al. Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets. Acc Chem Res, 2014, 47(4), 1067

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Gruverman A, Kalinin S V. Piezoresponse force microscopy and recent advances in nanoscale studies of ferroelectrics. J Mater Sci, 2006, 41(1), 107

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Chen X, Wu Z, Xu S, et al. Probing the electron states and metal-insulator transition mechanisms in molybdenum disulphide vertical heterostructures. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 6088

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Santos E J G, Kaxiras E. Electrically driven tuning of the dielectric constant in MoS2 layers. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(12), 10741

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Xie Y, Zhang B, Wang S, et al. Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717 nm. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(17), 1605972

[34]

Lopez-Sanchez O, Lembke D, Kayci M, et al. Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2. Nat Nanotechnol, 2013, 8(7), 497

[35]

McCreary K M, Hanbicki A T, Robinson J T, et al. Large-area synthesis of continuous and uniform MoS2 monolayer films on graphene. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24(41), 6449

[36]

Long M, Wang P, Fang H, et al. Progress, challenges, and opportunities for 2D material based photodetectors. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29(19), 1803807

[37]

Yin L, Wang Z, Wang F, et al. Ferroelectric-induced carrier modulation for ambipolar transition metal dichalcogenide transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110(12)

[38]

Choi W, Cho M Y, Konar A, et al. High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared. Adv Mater, 2012, 24(43), 5832

[1]

Wang J. A novel spin-FET based on 2D antiferromagnet. J Semicond, 2019, 40(2), 020401

[2]

Jiang W, Wang X, Chen Y, et al. Large-area high quality PtSe2 thin film with versatile polarity. InfoMat, 2019, 1, 260

[3]

Wu G, Wang X, Chen Y, et al. Ultrahigh photoresponsivity MoS2 photodetector with tunable photocurrent generation mechanism. Nanotechnology, 2018, 29(48), 485204

[4]

Liu L, Wang X, Han L, et al. Electrical characterization of MoS2 field-effect transistors with different dielectric polymer gate. AIP Adv, 2017, 7(6), 065121

[5]

Xue S, Zhao X L, Wang J L, et al. Preparation of La0.67Ca0.23- Sr0.1MnO3 thin films with interesting electrical and magnetic properties via pulsed-laser deposition. Sci Chin Phys, Mechan, Astron, 2017, 60(2), 027521

[6]

Wang J, Fang H, Wang X, et al. Recent progress on localized field enhanced two-dimensional material photodetectors from ultraviolet-visible to infrared. Small, 2017, 13(35), 1700894

[7]

Son Y W, Cohen M L, Louie S G. Energy gaps in graphene nanoribbons. Phys Rev Lett, 2006, 97(21), 216803

[8]

Meyer J C, Geim A K, Katsnelson M I, et al. The structure of suspended graphene sheets. Nature, 2007, 446(7131), 60

[9]

Peelaers H, Van de Walle C G. Effects of strain on band structure and effective masses in MoS2. Phys Rev B, 2012, 86(24), 241401

[10]

Kang D H, Kim M S, Shim J, et al. High-performance transition metal dichalcogenide photodetectors enhanced by self-assembled monolayer doping. Adv Funct Mater, 2015, 25(27), 4219

[11]

Wang L, Jie J, Shao Z, et al. MoS2/Si heterojunction with vertically standing layered structure for ultrafast, high-detectivity, self-driven visible-near infrared photodetectors. Adv Funct Maters, 2015, 25(19), 2910

[12]

Jariwala D, Sangwan V K, Wu C C, et al. Gate-tunable carbon nanotube-MoS2 heterojunction pn diode. Proc Nat Acad Sci, 2013, 110(45), 18076

[13]

Novoselov K S, Geim A K, Morozov S V, et al. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science, 2004, 306(5696), 666

[14]

Addou R, Colombo L, Wallace R M. Surface defects on natural MoS2. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2015, 7(22), 11921

[15]

Di Bartolomeo A, Genovese L, Giubileo F, et al. Hysteresis in the transfer characteristics of MoS2 transistors. 2D Mater, 2017, 5(1), 015014

[16]

Kwon J, Hong Y K, Han G, et al. Giant photoamplification in indirect-bandgap multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with local bottom-gate structures. Adv Mater, 2015, 27(13), 2224

[17]

Zhang W, Huang J K, Chen C H, et al. High-gain phototransistors based on a CVD MoS2 monolayer. Adv Mater, 2013, 25(25), 3456

[18]

Wu C L, Chen J W. Chen C H, et al. A gate-free monolayer WSe2 pn diode. APS Meeting Abstracts, 2018

[19]

Baeumer C, Saldana-Greco D, Martirez J M P, et al. Ferroelectrically driven spatial carrier density modulation in graphene. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 6136

[20]

Yin C, Wang X, Chen Y, et al. A ferroelectric relaxor polymer-enhanced p-type WSe2 transistor. Nanoscale, 2018, 10(4), 1727

[21]

Tian B B, Wang J L, Fusil S, et al. Tunnel electroresistance through organic ferroelectrics. Nat Commun, 2016, 7, 11502

[22]

Wang X, Wang P, Wang J, et al. Ultrasensitive and broadband MoS2 photodetector driven by ferroelectrics. Adv Mater, 2015, 27(42), 6575

[23]

Kufer D, Konstantatos G. Highly sensitive, encapsulated MoS2 photodetector with gate controllable gain and speed. Nano Lett, 2015, 15(11), 7307

[24]

Lee H S, Min S W, Park M K, et al. MoS2 nanosheets for top-gate nonvolatile memory transistor channel. Small, 2012, 8(20), 3111

[25]

Zhang E, Wang W, Zhang C, et al. Tunable charge-trap memory based on few-layer MoS2. ACS Nano, 2014, 9(1), 612

[26]

Zhao D, Katsouras I, Asadi K, et al. Switching dynamics in ferroelectric P (VDF-TrFE) thin films. Phys Rev B, 2015, 92(21), 214115

[27]

Furchi M M, Polyushkin D K, Pospischil A, et al. Mechanisms of photoconductivity in atomically thin MoS2. Nano Lett, 2014, 14(11), 6165

[28]

Lee H S, Min S W, Chang Y G, et al. MoS2 nanosheet phototransistors with thickness-modulated optical energy gap. Nano Lett, 2012, 12(7), 3695

[29]

Li H, Wu J, Yin Z, et al. Preparation and applications of mechanically exfoliated single-layer and multilayer MoS2 and WSe2 nanosheets. Acc Chem Res, 2014, 47(4), 1067

[30]

Gruverman A, Kalinin S V. Piezoresponse force microscopy and recent advances in nanoscale studies of ferroelectrics. J Mater Sci, 2006, 41(1), 107

[31]

Chen X, Wu Z, Xu S, et al. Probing the electron states and metal-insulator transition mechanisms in molybdenum disulphide vertical heterostructures. Nat Commun, 2015, 6, 6088

[32]

Santos E J G, Kaxiras E. Electrically driven tuning of the dielectric constant in MoS2 layers. ACS Nano, 2013, 7(12), 10741

[33]

Xie Y, Zhang B, Wang S, et al. Ultrabroadband MoS2 photodetector with spectral response from 445 to 2717 nm. Adv Mater, 2017, 29(17), 1605972

[34]

Lopez-Sanchez O, Lembke D, Kayci M, et al. Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2. Nat Nanotechnol, 2013, 8(7), 497

[35]

McCreary K M, Hanbicki A T, Robinson J T, et al. Large-area synthesis of continuous and uniform MoS2 monolayer films on graphene. Adv Funct Mater, 2014, 24(41), 6449

[36]

Long M, Wang P, Fang H, et al. Progress, challenges, and opportunities for 2D material based photodetectors. Adv Funct Mater, 2019, 29(19), 1803807

[37]

Yin L, Wang Z, Wang F, et al. Ferroelectric-induced carrier modulation for ambipolar transition metal dichalcogenide transistors. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110(12)

[38]

Choi W, Cho M Y, Konar A, et al. High-detectivity multilayer MoS2 phototransistors with spectral response from ultraviolet to infrared. Adv Mater, 2012, 24(43), 5832

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S Q Wu, G J Wu, X D Wang, Y Chen, T Lin, H Shen, W D Hu, X J Meng, J L Wang, J H Chu, A gate-free MoS2 phototransistor assisted by ferroelectrics[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(9): 092002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/9/092002.

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Manuscript received: 20 July 2019 Manuscript revised: 13 August 2019 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 16 August 2019 Uncorrected proof: 21 August 2019 Published: 01 September 2019

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