J. Semicond. > Volume 41 > Issue 12 > Article Number: 122701

Effects of high temperature annealing and laser irradiation on activation rate of phosphorus

Shaojie Li 1, 2, and Peide Han 1, 2, ,

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Abstract: Thermal annealing and laser irradiation were used to study the activation rate of phosphorus in silicon after ion implantation. The activation rate refers to the ratio of activated impurity number to the total impurity number in the sample. After injecting phosphorus with the dose and energy (energy = 55 keV, dose = 3 × 1015 cm–2), the samples were annealed at different temperatures, and laser irradiation experiments were performed after annealing. The experimental results showed that the activation rate of phosphorus was the highest at 850 °C, and the highest activation rate was 67%. Upon femtosecond laser irradiation samples after thermal annealing, while keeping the crystalline silicon surface without damage, the activation rate was improved. When the energy-flux density of the femtosecond laser was 0.65 kJ/cm2, the activation rate was the highest, increasing from 67% to 74.81%.

Key words: thermal annealingion implantationfemtosecond laseractivation rate

Abstract: Thermal annealing and laser irradiation were used to study the activation rate of phosphorus in silicon after ion implantation. The activation rate refers to the ratio of activated impurity number to the total impurity number in the sample. After injecting phosphorus with the dose and energy (energy = 55 keV, dose = 3 × 1015 cm–2), the samples were annealed at different temperatures, and laser irradiation experiments were performed after annealing. The experimental results showed that the activation rate of phosphorus was the highest at 850 °C, and the highest activation rate was 67%. Upon femtosecond laser irradiation samples after thermal annealing, while keeping the crystalline silicon surface without damage, the activation rate was improved. When the energy-flux density of the femtosecond laser was 0.65 kJ/cm2, the activation rate was the highest, increasing from 67% to 74.81%.

Key words: thermal annealingion implantationfemtosecond laseractivation rate



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[2]

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Suzuki K, Tada Y, Kataoka Y, et al. Maximum active concentration of ion-implanted phosphorus during solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2007, 54(8), 1985

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Hadjersi T. Annihilation kinetics of defects induced by phosphorus ion implantation in silicon. Appl Surf Sci, 2001, 185(1/2), 140

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Wu C, Crouch C H, Zhao L, et al. Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 78(13), 1850

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Crouch C H, Carey J E, Shen M, et al. Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation. Appl Phys A, 2004, 79(7), 1635

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Köhler J R, Eisele S J. Phosphorus out-diffusion in laser molten silicon. J Appl Phys, 2015, 117(14), 145701

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Winkler M T, Recht D, Sher M J, et al. Insulator-to-metal transition in sulfur-doped silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 2011, 106(17), 51

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Normann H B, Svensson B G, Monakhov E. Formation of shallow front emitters for solar cells by rapid thermal processing. Phys Status Solidi, 2012, 9(11), 2138

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Uematsu M. Simulation of boron, phosphorus, and arsenic diffusion in silicon based on an integrated diffusion model, and the anomalous phosphorus diffusion mechanism. J Appl Phys, 1997, 82(5), 2228

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Othonos A. Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors. J Appl Phys, 1998, 83(4), 1789

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Cerva H. Comparison of transmission electron microscope cross sections of amorphous regions in ion implanted silicon with point-defect density calculations. J Electrochem Soc, 1992, 139(12), 3631

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Uematsu M. Implantation species dependence of transient enhanced diffusion in silicon. J Appl Phys, 1998, 83(1), 120

[19]

Schroer E, Uematsu M. Simulation of clustering and pile-up during post-implantation annealing of phosphorus in silicon. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1999, 38(1A), 7

[20]

Uematsu M. Simulation of clustering and transient enhanced diffusion of boron in silicon. J Appl Phys, 1998, 84(9), 4781

[21]

Uematsu M. Simulation of high-concentration phosphorus diffusion in silicon taking into account phosphorus clustering and pile-up. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1999, 38(11), 6188

[22]

Mayer J W, Nicolet M, Chu W K. Backscattering spectrometry. Academic Press, 1978

[23]

Sundaram S K, Mazur E. Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses. Nat Mater, 2002, 1(4), 271

[24]

Silvestrelli P L, Alavi A, Parrinello M, et al. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of laser melting of silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1996, 77(15), 3149

[25]

Lo H W, Compaan A. Raman measurement of lattice temperature during pulsed laser heating of silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1980, 44(24), 1604

[1]

Hofker W K. Implantation of boron in silicon. Philips Res Rep, 1975, 15(3), 189

[2]

Skorupa W, Wieser E, Groetzschel R, et al. High energy implantation and annealing of phosphorus in silicon. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res, 1987, 19/20(Part1), 335

[3]

Kisielewicz M A. The damage-dependent atom and carrier profiles in phosphorus-implanted silicon. Thin Solid Films, 1983, 109(1), 11

[4]

Tsai M Y, Streetman B G. Recrystallization of implanted amorphous silicon layers. I. Electrical properties of silicon implanted with BF+2 or Si++B+. J Appl Phys, 1979, 50(1), 183

[5]

Landi E, Guimaraes S, Solmi S. Influence of nucleation on the kinetics of boron precipitation in silicon. Appl Phys A, 1987, 44(2), 135

[6]

Solmi S, Landi E, Baruffaldi F. High-concentration boron diffusion in silicon: Simulation of the precipitation phenomena. J Appl Phys, 1990, 68(7), 3250

[7]

Stolk P A, Gossmann H J, Eaglesham D J, et al. Physical mechanisms of transient enhanced dopant diffusion in ion-implanted silicon. J Appl Phys, 1997, 81(9), 6031

[8]

Suzuki K, Tada Y, Kataoka Y, et al. Maximum active concentration of ion-implanted phosphorus during solid-phase epitaxial recrystallization. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2007, 54(8), 1985

[9]

Hadjersi T. Annihilation kinetics of defects induced by phosphorus ion implantation in silicon. Appl Surf Sci, 2001, 185(1/2), 140

[10]

Wu C, Crouch C H, Zhao L, et al. Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon. Appl Phys Lett, 2001, 78(13), 1850

[11]

Crouch C H, Carey J E, Shen M, et al. Infrared absorption by sulfur-doped silicon formed by femtosecond laser irradiation. Appl Phys A, 2004, 79(7), 1635

[12]

Köhler J R, Eisele S J. Phosphorus out-diffusion in laser molten silicon. J Appl Phys, 2015, 117(14), 145701

[13]

Winkler M T, Recht D, Sher M J, et al. Insulator-to-metal transition in sulfur-doped silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 2011, 106(17), 51

[14]

Normann H B, Svensson B G, Monakhov E. Formation of shallow front emitters for solar cells by rapid thermal processing. Phys Status Solidi, 2012, 9(11), 2138

[15]

Uematsu M. Simulation of boron, phosphorus, and arsenic diffusion in silicon based on an integrated diffusion model, and the anomalous phosphorus diffusion mechanism. J Appl Phys, 1997, 82(5), 2228

[16]

Othonos A. Probing ultrafast carrier and phonon dynamics in semiconductors. J Appl Phys, 1998, 83(4), 1789

[17]

Cerva H. Comparison of transmission electron microscope cross sections of amorphous regions in ion implanted silicon with point-defect density calculations. J Electrochem Soc, 1992, 139(12), 3631

[18]

Uematsu M. Implantation species dependence of transient enhanced diffusion in silicon. J Appl Phys, 1998, 83(1), 120

[19]

Schroer E, Uematsu M. Simulation of clustering and pile-up during post-implantation annealing of phosphorus in silicon. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1999, 38(1A), 7

[20]

Uematsu M. Simulation of clustering and transient enhanced diffusion of boron in silicon. J Appl Phys, 1998, 84(9), 4781

[21]

Uematsu M. Simulation of high-concentration phosphorus diffusion in silicon taking into account phosphorus clustering and pile-up. Jpn J Appl Phys, 1999, 38(11), 6188

[22]

Mayer J W, Nicolet M, Chu W K. Backscattering spectrometry. Academic Press, 1978

[23]

Sundaram S K, Mazur E. Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses. Nat Mater, 2002, 1(4), 271

[24]

Silvestrelli P L, Alavi A, Parrinello M, et al. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of laser melting of silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1996, 77(15), 3149

[25]

Lo H W, Compaan A. Raman measurement of lattice temperature during pulsed laser heating of silicon. Phys Rev Lett, 1980, 44(24), 1604

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S J Li, P D Han, Effects of high temperature annealing and laser irradiation on activation rate of phosphorus[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(12): 122701. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/12/122701.

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History

Manuscript received: 22 April 2020 Manuscript revised: 11 August 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 17 September 2020 Uncorrected proof: 05 November 2020 Published: 08 December 2020

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