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Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics

Daquan Yang1, , Xiao Liu1, Xiaogang Li1, Bing Duan1, Aiqiang Wang1 and Yunfeng Xiao2, 3, 4, 5,

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 Corresponding author: Daquan Yang, Email: ydq@bupt.edu.cn; Yunfeng Xiao, yfxiao@pku.edu.cn

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Abstract: Integrated circuit (IC) industry has fully considered the fact that the Moore’s Law is slowing down or ending. Alternative solutions are highly and urgently desired to break the physical size limits in the More-than-Moore era. Integrated silicon photonics technology exhibits distinguished potential to achieve faster operation speed, less power dissipation, and lower cost in IC industry, because their COMS compatibility, fast response, and high monolithic integration capability. Particularly, compared with other on-chip resonators (e.g. microrings, 2D photonic crystal cavities) silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based photonic crystal nanobeam cavity (PCNC) has emerged as a promising platform for on-chip integration, due to their attractive properties of ultra-high Q/V, ultra-compact footprints and convenient integration with silicon bus-waveguides. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review on recent progress of on-chip PCNC devices for lasing, modulation, switching/filting and label-free sensing, etc.

Key words: PCNCintegrated silicon photonicsMore-than-Moorelab-on-a-chiphybrid devices



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) (a) Number and size of transistors bought per dollar. Source: The end of Moore’s law. The Economist, April, 2015. (b) The ITRS most recent report predicts transistor scaling will end in 2021. Source: International Semiconductor Technology Roadmap (ITRS).

Fig. 2.  (Color online) (a) The development trend of the semiconductor industry in the More-than-Moore Era. Source: International Semiconductor Technology Roadmap (ITRS). (b) Silicon photonics 2015–2024 market forecast. Source: Silicon Photonics Report Yole Développement.

Fig. 3.  (Color online) A summary of PCNC lasers (2010–2018). Insets show the device structures, materials, and threshold power, respectively.

Fig. 4.  (Color online) (a) Schematic and (b) SEM of the proposed hybrid III−V/Si nanolaser attached to a conventional silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide. (c) Measured output power near the end of the SOI waveguide (black) and near the InGaAsP nanobeam (red) against incident peak pump power. The inset shows a lasing emission spectrum near 1550 nm.

Fig. 5.  (Color online) (a) Schematic of the proposed room temperature, suspended silicon nanobeam laser with a monolayer MoTe2 on top. The corresponding lasing spectra of the nanobeam laser under different pump power levels (b) using a grating resolution: 150 g/mm (0.41 nm), and (c) using a grating resolution: 600 g/mm (0.09 nm).

Fig. 6.  (Color online) (a) Schematic of the proposed TO tunable nanobeam filter. (b) SEM image of the fabricated PCNC filter. (c) Measured wavelength shifts against heating powers.

Fig. 7.  (Color online) (a) SEM image of the proposed parallel quadrabeam PCNCs. (b) Real-time monitoring of streptavidin/biotin binding. Inset: resonance shift as a function of streptavidin concentration in PBS. (c) Resonance shifts as a function of the refractive indices with different concentrations ethanol/water solutions. (d) SEM of nanoscale sensor array. (e) Red shift of the targeted resonator occurs because of the higher refractive index of the CaCl2 solution. (f) Experimental data showing the redshifts for various refractive index solutions.

Table 1.   Comparison with PCNC-based modulators.

StructureMaterialDevice footprint (μm2)Modulation voltage (V)Modulation speed (GHz)Extinction ratio (dB)Energy consumption (J/bit)Year
Si-polymer7.70.286132011[45]
Si200.110–5100.52013[59]
Si40.622061.4 × 10–172014[47]
Si711.334.2 × 10–142014[48]
Si-graphene20−6.413312.56 × 10–132015[53]
Si-polymer3.6122410.97.5 × 10–162018[46]
Si- ITO1.8920.1119.893.4845.9 × 10–192019[60]
DownLoad: CSV

Table 2.   Comparison with PCNC-based optical switches.

PrincipleStructureMaterialDevice footprint (μm2)Switching powerExtinction ratio (dB)Insertion loss (dB)Year
Thermo-optic effectSi1 mW150.662016[68]
Si45000.16 mW151.52017[69]
Si141.52020[70]
Electro-optic effectSi474 aJ/bit22015[71]
Ge-on-Si3N48 pJ/bit60.972016[72]
Si2002.6 fJ/bit14.21.22016[73]
Kerr nonlinearityInP106 mW3.62014[74]
Si311.6 pJ2442018[75]
Si+polymer160.76 pJ2020[76]
DownLoad: CSV

Table 3.   Comparison with PCNC-based optical sensors.

StructureMaterialSensitivity (nm/RIU)QDetection limitYear
Si83350002 pM2013[99]
Si200200002012[100]
Si269270002012[101]
Polymer3863600010 mg/dL2011[102]
Si410~100002013[103]
Si451701510 ag/mL2014[104]
InGaAsP461~100002015[105]
Porous Si102390001.6 pm/nM2019[106]
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    Received: 27 May 2020 Revised: 06 August 2020 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 21 September 2020Uncorrected proof: 25 September 2020Published: 08 February 2021

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      Daquan Yang, Xiao Liu, Xiaogang Li, Bing Duan, Aiqiang Wang, Yunfeng Xiao. Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2021, 42(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/42/2/023103 D Q Yang, X Liu, X G Li, B Duan, A Q Wang, Y F Xiao, Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics[J]. J. Semicond., 2021, 42(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/42/2/023103.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Daquan Yang, Xiao Liu, Xiaogang Li, Bing Duan, Aiqiang Wang, Yunfeng Xiao. Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2021, 42(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/42/2/023103

      D Q Yang, X Liu, X G Li, B Duan, A Q Wang, Y F Xiao, Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics[J]. J. Semicond., 2021, 42(2): 023103. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/42/2/023103.
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      Photoic crystal nanobeam cavity devices for on-chip integrated silicon photonics

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/42/2/023103
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      • Author Bio:

        Daquan Yang received the B.S. degree in electronic information science and technology from the University of Jinan in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree in Information and Communication Engineering from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications in 2014, respectively. During his Ph. D., he joined the school of engineering and applied science at the Harvard University as a visiting follow for two years. Then, he joined the faculty of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications in 2014, and was promoted to an associate professor in 2016. He was awarded the Beijing Nova Program by Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission in 2020. His research interests include microcavity optics and micro-nano optical precision measurement

        Yunfeng Xiao received the B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in physics from University of Science and Technology of China in 2002 and 2007, respectively. After a postdoctoral research at Washington University in St. Louis, he joined the faculty of Peking University in 2009, and was promoted a tenured professor in 2014 a full professor in 2019. His research interests lie in the fields of whispering-gallery microcavity optics and photonics. He has authored or co-authored more than 170 refereed journal papers in Science, Nature Photonics, PNAS, PRL et al. He has delivered over 100 plenary/keynote/invited talks/seminars in international/national conferences/universities. He is an OSA Fellow, and has served as the committee for more than 30 international conferences

      • Corresponding author: Email: ydq@bupt.edu.cnyfxiao@pku.edu.cn
      • Received Date: 2020-05-27
      • Revised Date: 2020-08-06
      • Published Date: 2021-02-10

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