J. Semicond. > Volume 37 > Issue 9 > Article Number: 095002

A low-noise widely tunable Gm-C filter with frequency calibration

Yu Wang , Jing Liu , Na Yan , and Hao Min

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Abstract: A fourth-order Gm-C Chebyshev low-pass filter is presented as channel selection filter for reconfigurable multi-mode wireless receivers. Low-noise technologies are proposed in optimizing the noise characteristics of both the Gm cells and the filter topology. A frequency tuning strategy is used by tuning both the transconductance of the Gm cells and the capacitance of the capacitor banks. To achieve accurate cut-off frequencies, an on-chip calibration circuit is presented to compensate for the frequency inaccuracy introduced by process variation. The filter is fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. It exhibits a wide programmable bandwidth from 322.5 kHz to 20 MHz. Measured results show that the filter has low input referred noise of 5.9 nV/√Hz and high out-of-band ⅡP3 of 16.2 dBm. It consumes 4.2 and 9.5 mW from a 1 V power supply at its lowest and highest cut-off frequencies respectively.

Key words: Gm-C filterCMOS technologyoperational transconductance amplifierlow noisefrequency calibration

Abstract: A fourth-order Gm-C Chebyshev low-pass filter is presented as channel selection filter for reconfigurable multi-mode wireless receivers. Low-noise technologies are proposed in optimizing the noise characteristics of both the Gm cells and the filter topology. A frequency tuning strategy is used by tuning both the transconductance of the Gm cells and the capacitance of the capacitor banks. To achieve accurate cut-off frequencies, an on-chip calibration circuit is presented to compensate for the frequency inaccuracy introduced by process variation. The filter is fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. It exhibits a wide programmable bandwidth from 322.5 kHz to 20 MHz. Measured results show that the filter has low input referred noise of 5.9 nV/√Hz and high out-of-band ⅡP3 of 16.2 dBm. It consumes 4.2 and 9.5 mW from a 1 V power supply at its lowest and highest cut-off frequencies respectively.

Key words: Gm-C filterCMOS technologyoperational transconductance amplifierlow noisefrequency calibration



References:

[1]

Lo T Y, Lo C H. 1-V 365-μ W 2.5-MHz channel selection filter for 3G wireless receiver in 55-nm CMOS[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst, 2014, 22(5): 1164. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2260187

[2]

Heragu A, Ruffieux D, Enz C. A low power BAW resonator based 2.4-GHz receiver with bandwidth tunable channel selection filter at RF[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(6): 1343. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2013.2253411

[3]

Gaxiola-Sosa J, Hedayati H, Lv P, et al. A CMOS inverse Chebyshev channel selection filter for extravehicular activity (EVA) radio receivers. IEEE 56th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), 2013, Columbus, OH, 2013: 217

[4]

Galán J, Pedro M, Sánchez-Rodríguez T. A very linear low-pass filter with automatic frequency tuning[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integ Syst, 2013, 21(1): 182. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2181880

[5]

Liu Qiongbing, Yu Xiaobao, Zhang Junfeng. A reconfigurable CBP/LP active RC filter with noise-shaping technique for wireless receivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2014, 35(9): 095003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/9/095003

[6]

Cheng Xin, Yang Haigang, Gao Tongqiang. A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with a reconfigurable center and cutoff frequencies in low-IF WiMAX receivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2013, 34(7): 075004. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/34/7/075004

[7]

Sánchez-Rodríguez T, Gomez-Galan J, Carvajal R. A 1.2-V 450-μ W Gm-C Bluetooth channel filter using a novel gain-boosted tunable transconductor[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst, 2015, 23(8): 1572. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2014.2341929

[8]

Geng Zhiqing, Wu Nanjian. A low power wide tuning range baseband filter for multistandard transceivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(4): 045006. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/4/045006

[9]

Razivi B. Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.

[10]

Abdulaziz M, Törmänen M, Sjöland H. A 4th order Gm-C filter with 10 MHz bandwidth and 39 dBm ⅡP3 in 65 nm CMOS. European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), 2014: 367

[11]

Liu Silin, Ma Heping, Shi Yin. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2010, 31(6): 065008. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/31/6/065008

[12]

Wang Weiwei, Chang Xuegui, Wang Xiao. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2011, 32(4): 045008. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/32/4/045008

[13]

Lo T Y, Hung C C, Ismail M. A wide tuning range Gm-C filter for multi-mode CMOS direct-conversion wireless receivers[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(9): 2515. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2009.2023154

[14]

Oskooei M, Masoumi N, Kamarei M. A CMOS 4.35-mW+22-dBm ⅡP3 continuously tunable channel select filter for WLAN/WiMAX receivers[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2011, 46(6): 1382. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2011.2120670

[15]

Hori S, Massuno N, Meada T. Low-power widely tunable Gm-C filter employing an adaptive DC-blocking, triode-biased MOSFET transconductor[J]. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I, 2014, 61(1): 37. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2013.2268291

[1]

Lo T Y, Lo C H. 1-V 365-μ W 2.5-MHz channel selection filter for 3G wireless receiver in 55-nm CMOS[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst, 2014, 22(5): 1164. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2260187

[2]

Heragu A, Ruffieux D, Enz C. A low power BAW resonator based 2.4-GHz receiver with bandwidth tunable channel selection filter at RF[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2013, 48(6): 1343. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2013.2253411

[3]

Gaxiola-Sosa J, Hedayati H, Lv P, et al. A CMOS inverse Chebyshev channel selection filter for extravehicular activity (EVA) radio receivers. IEEE 56th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), 2013, Columbus, OH, 2013: 217

[4]

Galán J, Pedro M, Sánchez-Rodríguez T. A very linear low-pass filter with automatic frequency tuning[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integ Syst, 2013, 21(1): 182. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2181880

[5]

Liu Qiongbing, Yu Xiaobao, Zhang Junfeng. A reconfigurable CBP/LP active RC filter with noise-shaping technique for wireless receivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2014, 35(9): 095003. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/35/9/095003

[6]

Cheng Xin, Yang Haigang, Gao Tongqiang. A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with a reconfigurable center and cutoff frequencies in low-IF WiMAX receivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2013, 34(7): 075004. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/34/7/075004

[7]

Sánchez-Rodríguez T, Gomez-Galan J, Carvajal R. A 1.2-V 450-μ W Gm-C Bluetooth channel filter using a novel gain-boosted tunable transconductor[J]. IEEE Trans Very Large Scale Integr Syst, 2015, 23(8): 1572. doi: 10.1109/TVLSI.2014.2341929

[8]

Geng Zhiqing, Wu Nanjian. A low power wide tuning range baseband filter for multistandard transceivers[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2015, 36(4): 045006. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/36/4/045006

[9]

Razivi B. Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits. New York: McGraw Hill, 2000.

[10]

Abdulaziz M, Törmänen M, Sjöland H. A 4th order Gm-C filter with 10 MHz bandwidth and 39 dBm ⅡP3 in 65 nm CMOS. European Solid State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), 2014: 367

[11]

Liu Silin, Ma Heping, Shi Yin. A low power Gm-C filter with on-chip automatic tuning for a WLAN transceiver[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2010, 31(6): 065008. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/31/6/065008

[12]

Wang Weiwei, Chang Xuegui, Wang Xiao. A 4th-order reconfigurable analog baseband filter for software-defined radio applications[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2011, 32(4): 045008. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/32/4/045008

[13]

Lo T Y, Hung C C, Ismail M. A wide tuning range Gm-C filter for multi-mode CMOS direct-conversion wireless receivers[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2009, 44(9): 2515. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2009.2023154

[14]

Oskooei M, Masoumi N, Kamarei M. A CMOS 4.35-mW+22-dBm ⅡP3 continuously tunable channel select filter for WLAN/WiMAX receivers[J]. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits, 2011, 46(6): 1382. doi: 10.1109/JSSC.2011.2120670

[15]

Hori S, Massuno N, Meada T. Low-power widely tunable Gm-C filter employing an adaptive DC-blocking, triode-biased MOSFET transconductor[J]. IEEE Trans Circuits Syst I, 2014, 61(1): 37. doi: 10.1109/TCSI.2013.2268291

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Y Wang, J Liu, N Yan, H Min. A low-noise widely tunable Gm-C filter with frequency calibration[J]. J. Semicond., 2016, 37(9): 095002. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/9/095002.

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Manuscript received: 01 March 2016 Manuscript revised: 01 April 2016 Online: Published: 01 September 2016

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