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Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material

Hang Dong1, 2, Huiwen Xue1, 2, Qiming He1, 2, Yuan Qin1, 2, Guangzhong Jian1, 2, Shibing Long1, 2, 3, and Ming Liu1, 2

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 Corresponding author: Shibing Long, E-mail: shibinglong@ustc.edu.cn

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Abstract: As a promising ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor, gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The high theoretical breakdown electrical field (8 MV/cm), ultra-wide bandgap (~ 4.8 eV) and large Baliga’s figure of merit (BFOM) of Ga2O3 make it a potential candidate material for next generation high-power electronics, including diode and field effect transistor (FET). In this paper, we introduce the basic physical properties of Ga2O3 single crystal, and review the recent research process of Ga2O3 based field effect transistors. Furthermore, various structures of FETs have been summarized and compared, and the potential of Ga2O3 is preliminary revealed. Finally, the prospect of the Ga2O3 based FET for power electronics application is analyzed.

Key words: gallium oxide (Ga2O3)ultra-wide bandgap semiconductorpower devicefield effect transistor (FET)



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Fig. 1.  (Color online) Transformation relationships among Ga2O3 in different crystalline phases and their hydrates[21].

Fig. 2.  (Color online) Crystal structure of β-Ga2O3[32].

Fig. 3.  (Color online) The development of β-Ga2O3 transistor in recent years.

Fig. 4.  (Color online) Schematic cross-section of β-Ga2O3 (a) MESFET[12] and (b) MOSFET[11].

Fig. 5.  (Color online) (a) Schematic cross-section, (b) the off-state drain/gate leakage and breakdown curves, (c) temperature-dependent transfer characteristics at Vds = 30 V, and (d) DC and pulsed output curves of the β-Ga2O3 FP-MOSFET[16].

Fig. 6.  Top–down SEM image of the two-finger MOSFET on (100) β-Ga2O3[55].

Fig. 7.  (Color online) (a) SEM false-colored cross-section view of recessed-gate MOSFETs and HR-TEM of (b) its sidewall and (c) bottom facets of the gate-recess contact, (d) its gate-source and drain-source breakdown curves of both source-drain distances[15].

Fig. 8.  (Color online) (a) Schematic cross-section and SEM image, and (b) three-terminal off-state breakdown curves of vertical β-Ga2O3 Fin-MISFET[14].

Fig. 9.  (Color online) (a) Cross section schematic, (b) focused ion beam (FIB) cross sectional image, and (c) extrinsic small signal RF gain performance of RF β-Ga2O3 MOSFET[59].

Fig. 10.  (Color online) (a) Schematic and (b) density-dependent field effect mobility of Silicon delta-doped β-Ga2O3 MESFET.

Fig. 11.  (Color online) Depletion/enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 on insulator (GOOI) FETs[17].

Table 1.   Comparison of the physical properties of Si, GaN, SiC and β-Ga2O3 semiconductor[6].

Semiconductor material Si GaN 4H-SiC β-Ga2O3
Bandgap Eg (eV) 1.1 3.4 3.3 4.7–4.9
Electron mobility μ (cm2·V−1·s−1) 1400 1200 1000 300
Breakdown electric field Eb (MV/cm) 0.3 3.3 2.5 8
Baliga’s FOM (εμEb3) 1 870 340 3444
Thermal conductivity λ (W·cm−1·K−1) 1.5 2.1 2.7 0.11
DownLoad: CSV

Table 2.   Development of Ga2O3 FETs and the corresponding performances.

Device type Substrateorientation Gate dielectrics Vbr (V) Jmax (mA/mm) On/off ratio gm (mS/mm) Reference
D-MESFET (010) β-Ga2O3 250 104 1.4 [12]
D-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 370 39 1010 [11]
E-Fin FET (100) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 600 - 105 [15]
Two-finger D-MOSFET (100) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 230 60 107 1.1 [55]
Field plate D-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 750 78 109 3.4 [16]
Recessed-gate D-MOSFET (100) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 150 106 21.2 [59]
E-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 1.4 106 0.38 [56]
D-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 HfO2 400 45 108 [74]
Vertical trench D-MOSFET (001) β-Ga2O3 HfO2 103 [75]
Vertical Fin D-MOSFET (-201) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 185 1 kA/cm2 109 [58]
D-MOSFET β-Ga2O3 SiO2 382 40 108 1.23 [76]
Recessed-gate E-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 SiO2 505 40 109 7 [15]
Vertical Fin E-MISFET (001) β-Ga2O3 Al2O3 1057 300–500 kA/cm2 108 [14]
Delta doped D-MOSFET (010) β-Ga2O3 170 140 106 34 [61]
DownLoad: CSV
[1]
J Millan, P Godignon, X Perpina, et al. A Survey of Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Devices. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2014, 29(5): 2155 doi: 10.1109/TPEL.2013.2268900
[2]
Baliga B J. Fundamentals of power semiconductor devices. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2010
[3]
T P Chow, I Omura, M Higashiwaki, et al. Smart power devices and ICs using GaAs and wide and extreme bandgap semiconductors. IEEE Trans Electron Devices, 2017, 64(3): 856 doi: 10.1109/TED.2017.2653759
[4]
S Fujita. Wide-bandgap semiconductor materials: For their full bloom. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2015, 54(3): 030101 doi: 10.7567/JJAP.54.030101
[5]
M Higashiwaki, K Sasaki, A Kuramata, et al. Development of gallium oxide power device. Phys Status Solidi A, 2014, 211(1): 21 doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330197
[6]
M Higashiwaki, K Sasaki, H Murakami, et al. Recent progress in Ga2O3 power devices. Semicond Sci Technol, 2016, 31(3): 034001 doi: 10.1088/0268-1242/31/3/034001
[7]
N Ueda, H Hosono, R Waseda, et al. Synthesis and control of conductivity of ultraviolet transmitting β-Ga2O3 single crystals. Appl Phys Lett, 1997, 70(26): 3561 doi: 10.1063/1.119233
[8]
E G Víllora, K Shimamura, Y Yoshikawa, et al. Large-size β-Ga2O3 single crystals and wafers. J Cryst Growth, 2004, 270(3/4): 420
[9]
K N H Aida, H Takeda, N Aota, et al. Growth of β-Ga2O3 single crystals by the edge-defined, film fed growth method. Jpn J Appl Phys, 2008, 47(11): 8506 doi: 10.1143/JJAP.47.8506
[10]
M Higashiwaki, K Konishi, K Sasaki, et al. Temperature-dependent capacitance–voltage and current–voltage characteristics of Pt/Ga2O3 (001) Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on n-Ga2O3 drift layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy. Appl Phys Lett, 2016, 108(13): 133503 doi: 10.1063/1.4945267
[11]
M Higashiwaki, K Sasaki, T Kamimura, et al. Depletion-mode Ga2O3 metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors on β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates and temperature dependence of their device characteristics. Appl Phys Lett, 2013, 103(12): 123511 doi: 10.1063/1.4821858
[12]
M Higashiwaki, K Sasaki, A Kuramata, et al. Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors on single-crystal β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. Appl Phys Lett, 2012, 100(1): 013504 doi: 10.1063/1.3674287
[13]
W S Hwang, A Verma, H Peelaers, et al. High-voltage field effect transistors with wide-bandgap β-Ga2O3 nanomembranes. Appl Phys Lett, 2014, 104(20): 203111 doi: 10.1063/1.4879800
[14]
Z Hu, K Nomoto, W Li, et al. Enhancement-mode Ga2O3 vertical Transistors with breakdown voltage > 1 kV. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39(6): 869 doi: 10.1109/LED.2018.2830184
[15]
K D Chabak, J P McCandless, N A Moser, et al. Recessed-gate enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 MOSFETs. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39(1): 67 doi: 10.1109/LED.2017.2779867
[16]
M. H. Wong, K. Sasaki, A. Kuramata, et al. Field-Plated Ga2O3 MOSFETs With a Breakdown Voltage of Over 750 V. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2016, 37(2): 212-215 doi: 10.1109/LED.2015.2512279
[17]
H Zhou, M Si, S Alghamdi, et al. High performance depletion/enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 on insulator (GOOI) field-effect transistors with record drain currents of 600/450 mA/mm. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2017, 38(1): 103 doi: 10.1109/LED.2016.2635579
[18]
Q He, W Mu, B Fu, et al. Schottky barrier rectifier based on (100) β-Ga2O3 and its DC and AC characteristics. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2018, 39(4): 556
[19]
K Sasaki, D Wakimoto, Q T Thieu, et al. First demonstration of Ga2O3 trench MOS-type Schottky barrier diodes. IEEE Electron Device Lett, 2017, 38(6): 783 doi: 10.1109/LED.2017.2696986
[20]
K Konishi, K Goto, H Murakami, et al. 1-kV vertical Ga2O3 field-plated Schottky barrier diodes. Appl Phys Lett, 2017, 110(10): 103506 doi: 10.1063/1.4977857
[21]
R Roy, Hill V G, Osborn E F. Polymorphism of Ga2O3 and the system Ga2O3–H2O. J Am Chem Soc, 1952, 74: 719 doi: 10.1021/ja01123a039
[22]
H H Tippins. Optical absorption and photoconductivity in the band edge of β-Ga2O3. Phys Rev, 1965, 140(1A): A316 doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.140.A316
[23]
T C Lovejoy, E N Yitamben, N. Shamir, et al. Surface morphology and electronic structure of bulk single crystal β-Ga2O3 (100). Appl Phys Lett, 2009, 94(8): 081906 doi: 10.1063/1.3086392
[24]
M Mohamed, C Janowitz, I Unger, et al. The electronic structure of β-Ga2O3. Appl Phys Lett, 2010, 97(21): 211903 doi: 10.1063/1.3521255
[25]
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    Received: 05 August 2018 Revised: 20 September 2018 Online: Accepted Manuscript: 20 December 2018Uncorrected proof: 25 December 2018Published: 07 January 2019

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      Hang Dong, Huiwen Xue, Qiming He, Yuan Qin, Guangzhong Jian, Shibing Long, Ming Liu. Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(1): 011802. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802 H Dong, H W Xue, Q M He, Y Qin, G Z Jian, S B Long, M Liu, Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(1): 011802. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802.Export: BibTex EndNote
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      Hang Dong, Huiwen Xue, Qiming He, Yuan Qin, Guangzhong Jian, Shibing Long, Ming Liu. Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2019, 40(1): 011802. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802

      H Dong, H W Xue, Q M He, Y Qin, G Z Jian, S B Long, M Liu, Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material[J]. J. Semicond., 2019, 40(1): 011802. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802.
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      Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material

      doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802
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      • Corresponding author: E-mail: shibinglong@ustc.edu.cn
      • Received Date: 2018-08-05
      • Revised Date: 2018-09-20
      • Published Date: 2019-01-01

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