Review Articles
  • Growth and fundamentals of bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals

    H. F. Mohamed, Changtai Xia, Qinglin Sai, Huiyuan Cui, Mingyan Pan, Hongji Qi

    J. Semicond.  2019, 40 (1): 011801

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011801

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    The rapid development of bulk β-Ga2O3 crystals has attracted much attention to their use as ultra-wide bandgap materials for next-generation power devices owing to its large bandgap (~ 4.9 eV) and large breakdown electric field of about 8 MV/cm. Low cost and high quality of large β-Ga2O3 single-crystal substrates can be attained by melting growth techniques widely used in the industry. In this paper, we first present an overview of the properties of β-Ga2O3 crystals in bulk form. We then describe the various methods for producing bulk β-Ga2O3 crystals and their applications. Finally, we will present a future perspective of the research in the area in the area of single crystal growth.

  • Progress of power field effect transistor based on ultra-wide bandgap Ga2O3 semiconductor material

    Hang Dong, Huiwen Xue, Qiming He, Yuan Qin, Guangzhong Jian, Shibing Long, Ming Liu

    J. Semicond.  2019, 40 (1): 011802

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011802

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    As a promising ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor, gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The high theoretical breakdown electrical field (8 MV/cm), ultra-wide bandgap (~ 4.8 eV) and large Baliga’s figure of merit (BFOM) of Ga2O3 make it a potential candidate material for next generation high-power electronics, including diode and field effect transistor (FET). In this paper, we introduce the basic physical properties of Ga2O3 single crystal, and review the recent research process of Ga2O3 based field effect transistors. Furthermore, various structures of FETs have been summarized and compared, and the potential of Ga2O3 is preliminary revealed. Finally, the prospect of the Ga2O3 based FET for power electronics application is analyzed.

  • A review of the most recent progresses of state-of-art gallium oxide power devices

    Hong Zhou, Jincheng Zhang, Chunfu Zhang, Qian Feng, Shenglei Zhao, Peijun Ma, Yue Hao

    J. Semicond.  2019, 40 (1): 011803

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011803

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Until very recently, gallium oxide (Ga2O3) has aroused more and more interests in the area of power electronics due to its ultra-wide bandgap of 4.5–4.8 eV, estimated critical field of 8 MV/cm and decent intrinsic electron mobility limit of 250 cm2/(V·s), yielding a high Baliga’s figures-of-merit (FOM) of more than 3000, which is several times higher than GaN and SiC. In addition to its excellent material properties, potential low-cost and large size substrate through melt-grown methodology also endows β-Ga2O3 more potential for future low-cost power devices. This article focuses on reviewing the most recent advances of β-Ga2O3 based power devices. It will be starting with a brief introduction to the material properties of β-Ga2O3 and then the growth techniques of its native substrate, followed by the thin film epitaxial growth. The performance of state-of-art β-Ga2O3 devices, including diodes and FETs are fully discussed and compared. Finally, potential solutions to the challenges of β-Ga2O3 are also discussed and explored.

  • A review of β-Ga2O3 single crystal defects, their effects on device performance and their formation mechanism

    Bo Fu, Zhitai Jia, Wenxiang Mu, Yanru Yin, Jian Zhang, Xutang Tao

    J. Semicond.  2019, 40 (1): 011804

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011804

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    As a wide-bandgap semiconductor (WBG), β-Ga2O3 is expected to be applied to power electronics and solar blind UV photodetectors. In this review, defects in β-Ga2O3 single crystals were summarized, including dislocations, voids, twin, and small defects. Their effects on device performance were discussed. Dislocations and their surrounding regions can act as paths for the leakage current of SBD in single crystals. However, not all voids lead to leakage current. There’s no strong evidence yet to show small defects affect the electrical properties. Doping impurity was definitely irrelated to the leakage current. Finally, the formation mechanism of the defects was analyzed. Most small defects were induced by mechanical damages. The screw dislocation originated from a subgrain boundary. The edge dislocation lying on a plane slightly tilted towards the (102) plane, the (101) being the possible slip plane. The voids defects like hollow nanopipes, PNPs, NSGs and line-shaped grooves may be caused by the condensation of excess oxygen vacancies, penetration of tiny bubbles or local meltback. The nucleation of twin lamellae occurred at the initial stage of " shoulder part” during the crystal growth. These results are helpful in controlling the occurrence of crystal defects and improving the device performance.

  • Application of halide vapor phase epitaxy for the growth of ultra-wide band gap Ga2O3

    Xiangqian Xiu, Liying Zhang, Yuewen Li, Zening Xiong, Rong Zhang, Youdou Zheng

    J. Semicond.  2019, 40 (1): 011805

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/40/1/011805

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the growth of Si, GaAs, GaN, etc. HVPE is a non-organic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, characterized by high quality growth of epitaxial layers with fast growth rate, which is versatile for the fabrication of both substrates and devices with wide applications. In this paper, we review the usage of HVPE for the growth and device applications of Ga2O3, with detailed discussions on a variety of technological aspects of HVPE. It is concluded that HVPE is a promising candidate for the epitaxy of large-area Ga2O3 substrates and for the fabrication of high power β-Ga2O3 devices.

  • InP-based monolithically integrated few-mode devices

    Dan Lu, Yiming He, Zhaosong Li, Lingjuan Zhao, Wei Wang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (10): 101001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/10/101001

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    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) has become an increasingly important technology to further increase the transmission capacity of both optical-fiber-based communication networks, data centers and waveguide-based on-chip optical interconnects. Mode manipulation devices are indispensable in MDM system and have been widely studied in fiber, planar lightwave circuits, and silicon and InP based platforms. InP-based integration technology provides the easiest accessibility to bring together the functions of laser sources, modulators, and mode manipulation devices into a single chip, making it a promising solution for fully integrated few-mode transmitters in the MDM system. This paper reviews the recent progress in InP-based mode manipulation devices, including the few-mode converters, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and transmitters. The working principle, structures, and performance of InP-based few-mode devices are discussed.

  • A review: crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities for pressure sensors by using silicon migration technology

    Jiale Su, Xinwei Zhang, Guoping Zhou, Changfeng Xia, Wuqing Zhou, Qing'an Huang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (7): 071005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/071005

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    A silicon pressure sensor is one of the very first MEMS components appearing in the microsystem area. The market for the MEMS pressure sensor is rapidly growing due to consumer electronic applications in recent years. Requirements of the pressure sensors with low cost, low power consumption and high accuracy drive one to develop a novel technology. This paper first overviews the historical development of the absolute pressure sensor briefly. It then reviews the state of the art technology for fabricating crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities by using the silicon migration technology in detail. By using only one lithographic step, the membranes defined in lateral and vertical dimensions can be realized by the technology. Finally, applications of MEMS through using the silicon migration technology are summarized.

  • Concept and design of super junction devices

    Bo Zhang, Wentong Zhang, Ming Qiao, Zhenya Zhan, Zhaoji Li

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (2): 021001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/2/021001

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of RonVB2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of RonVB1.03.

  • High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

    Zeping Zhao, Jianguo Liu, Yu Liu, Ninghua Zhu

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38 (12): 121001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/12/121001

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    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems.

  • Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Yujia Zhang, Haiyang Wang, Lei Zhang, Xiaomeng Chen, Yu Guo, Huabin Sun, Yun Li

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38 (11): 111001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/11/111001

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications.

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