Current electronics are driven by advanced microfabrication for fast and efficient information processing. In spite of high performance, these wafer-based devices are rigid, non-degradable, and unable to autonomous repair. Skin-inspired electronics have emerged as a new class of devices and systems for next-generation flexible and wearable electronics. The technology gains inspiration from the structures, properties, and sensing mechanisms of the skin, which may find a broad range of applications in cutting-edge fields such as healthcare monitoring, human-machine interface, and soft robotics/prostheses. Practical demands have fueled the development of electronic materials with skin-like properties in terms of stretchability, self-healing capability, and biodegradability. These materials provide the basis for functional sensors with innovative and biomimetic designs. Further system-level integrations and optimizations enable new forms of electronics for real-world applications. This review summarizes recent advancements in this active area and speculates on future directions.
J. Semicond.Zhong Ma, Desheng Kong, Lijia Pan, Zhenan Bao. Skin-inspired electronics: emerging semiconductor devices and systems[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041601.
Z Ma, D S Kong, L J Pan, Z N Bao, Skin-inspired electronics: emerging semiconductor devices and systems[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041601. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041601.Export: BibTex EndNote
J. Semicond.Tianyao Zhang, Guang Yao, Taisong Pan, Qingjian Lu, Yuan Lin. Flexible inorganic oxide thin-film electronics enabled by advanced strategies[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041602. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041602.
T Y Zhang, G Yao, T S Pan, Q J Lu, Y Lin, Flexible inorganic oxide thin-film electronics enabled by advanced strategies[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041602. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041602.Export: BibTex EndNote
With the advent of human-friendly intelligent life, as well as increasing demands for natural and seamless human-machine interactions, flexibility and wearability are among the inevitable development trends for electronic devices in the future. Due to the advantages of rich physicochemical properties, flexible and stretchable inorganic oxide thin-film electronics play an increasingly important role in the emerging and exciting flexible electronic field, and they will act as a critical player in next-generation electronics. However, a stable strategy to render flexibility while maintaining excellent performance of oxide thin films is the most demanding and challenging problem, both for academic and industrial communities. Thus, this review focuses on the latest advanced strategies to achieve flexible inorganic oxide thin-film electronics. This review emphasizes the physical transferring strategies that are based on mechanical peeling and the chemical transferring strategies that are based on sacrificial layer etching. Finally, this review evaluates and summarizes the merits and demerits of these strategies toward actual applications, concluding with a future perspective into the challenges and opportunities for the next-generation of flexible inorganic oxide thin-film electronics.
A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability
J. Semicond.Melissa Davis, Zhibin Yu. A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603.
M Davis, Z B Yu, A review of flexible halide perovskite solar cells towards scalable manufacturing and environmental sustainability[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041603. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041603.Export: BibTex EndNote
The perovskite material has many superb qualities which allow for its remarkable success as solar cells; flexibility is an emerging field for this technology. To encourage commercialization of flexible perovskite solar cells, two main areas are of focus: mitigation of stability issues and adaptation of production to flexible substrates. An in-depth report on stability concerns and solutions follows with a focus on Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites. Roll to roll processing of devices is desired to further reduce costs, so a review of flexible devices and their production methods follows as well. The final focus is on the sustainability of perovskite solar cell devices where recycling methods and holistic environmental impacts of devices are done.
J. Semicond.Haoran Fu, Ke Bai, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang. Recent progress of morphable 3D mesostructures in advanced materials[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041604. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041604.
H R Fu, K Bai, Y G Huang, Y H Zhang, Recent progress of morphable 3D mesostructures in advanced materials[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041604. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041604.Export: BibTex EndNote
Soft robots complement the existing efforts of miniaturizing conventional, rigid robots, and have the potential to revolutionize areas such as military equipment and biomedical devices. This type of system can accomplish tasks in complex and time-varying environments through geometric reconfiguration induced by diverse external stimuli, such as heat, solvent, light, electric field, magnetic field, and mechanical field. Approaches to achieve reconfigurable mesostructures are essential to the design and fabrication of soft robots. Existing studies mainly focus on four key aspects: reconfiguration mechanisms, fabrication schemes, deformation control principles, and practical applications. This review presents a detailed survey of methodologies for morphable mesostructures triggered by a wide range of stimuli, with a number of impressive examples, demonstrating high degrees of deformation complexities and varied multi-functionalities. The latest progress based on the development of new materials and unique design concepts is highlighted. An outlook on the remaining challenges and open opportunities is provided.
J. Semicond.Dongyi Wang, Lili Wang, Guozhen Shen. Nanofiber/nanowires-based flexible and stretchable sensors[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041605. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041605.
D Y Wang, L L Wang, G Z Shen, Nanofiber/nanowires-based flexible and stretchable sensors[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041605. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041605.Export: BibTex EndNote
Nanofibers/nanowires with one-dimension (1D) nanostructure or well-patterned microstructure have shown distinctly advantages in flexible and stretchable sensor fields, owing to their remarkable tolerance against mechanical bending or stretching, outstanding electronic/optoelectronic properties, good transparency, and excellent geometry. Herein, latest summaries in the unique structure and properties of nanofiber/nanowire function materials and their applications for flexible and stretchable sensor are highlighted. Several types of high-performance nanofiber/nanowire-based flexible pressure and stretchable sensors are also reviewed. Finally, a conclusion and prospect for 1D nanofiber/nanowires-based flexible and stretchable sensors are also intensively discussed. This summary offers new insights for the development of flexible and stretchable sensor based 1D nanostructure in next-generation flexible electronics.
J. Semicond.Zhou Wang, Xinyi Shan, Xugao Cui, Pengfei Tian. Characteristics and techniques of GaN-based micro-LEDs for application in next-generation display[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(4): 041606. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041606.
Z Wang, X Y Shan, X G Cui, P F Tian, Characteristics and techniques of GaN-based micro-LEDs for application in next-generation display[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(4): 041606. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/4/041606.Export: BibTex EndNote
Due to the excellent optoelectronic properties, fast response time, outstanding power efficiency and high stability, micro-LED plays an increasingly important role in the new generation of display technology compared with LCD and OLED display. This paper mainly introduces the preparation methods of the GaN-based micro-LED array, the optoelectronic characteristics, and several key technologies to achieve full-color display, such as transfer printing, color conversion by quantum dot and local strain engineering.
J. Semicond. 2020, 41 (2): 021401Yanan Lu, Leibo Liu, Jianfeng Zhu, Shouyi Yin, Shaojun Wei. Architecture, challenges and applications of dynamic reconfigurable computing[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(2): 021401. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021401.
Y N Lu, L B Liu, J F Zhu, S Y Yin, S J Wei, Architecture, challenges and applications of dynamic reconfigurable computing[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(2): 021401. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021401.Export: BibTex EndNote
As a computing paradigm that combines temporal and spatial computations, dynamic reconfigurable computing provides superiorities of flexibility, energy efficiency and area efficiency, attracting interest from both academia and industry. However, dynamic reconfigurable computing is not yet mature because of several unsolved problems. This work introduces the concept, architecture, and compilation techniques of dynamic reconfigurable computing. It also discusses the existing major challenges and points out its potential applications.
J. Semicond. 2020, 41 (2): 021402Zhengjie Li, Yufan Zhang, Jian Wang, Jinmei Lai. A survey of FPGA design for AI era[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(2): 021402. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021402.
Z J Li, Y F Zhang, J Wang, J M Lai, A survey of FPGA design for AI era[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(2): 021402. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021402.Export: BibTex EndNote
FPGA is an appealing platform to accelerate DNN. We survey a range of FPGA chip designs for AI. For DSP module, one type of design is to support low-precision operation, such as 9-bit or 4-bit multiplication. The other type of design of DSP is to support floating point multiply-accumulates (MACs), which guarantee high-accuracy of DNN. For ALM (adaptive logic module) module, one type of design is to support low-precision MACs, three modifications of ALM includes extra carry chain, or 4-bit adder, or shadow multipliers which increase the density of on-chip MAC operation. The other enhancement of ALM or CLB (configurable logic block) is to support BNN (binarized neural network) which is ultra-reduced precision version of DNN. For memory modules which can store weights and activations of DNN, three types of memory are proposed which are embedded memory, in-package HBM (high bandwidth memory) and off-chip memory interfaces, such as DDR4/5. Other designs are new architecture and specialized AI engine. Xilinx ACAP in 7 nm is the first industry adaptive compute acceleration platform. Its AI engine can provide up to 8X silicon compute density. Intel AgileX in 10 nm works coherently with Intel own CPU, which increase computation performance, reduced overhead and latency.
J. Semicond. 2020, 41 (2): 021403Jin Song, Xuemeng Wang, Zhipeng Zhao, Wei Li, Tian Zhi. A survey of neural network accelerator with software development environments[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(2): 021403. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021403.
J Song, X M Wang, Z P Zhao, W Li, T Zhi, A survey of neural network accelerator with software development environments[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(2): 021403. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/2/021403.Export: BibTex EndNote
Recent years, the deep learning algorithm has been widely deployed from cloud servers to terminal units. And researchers proposed various neural network accelerators and software development environments. In this article, we have reviewed the representative neural network accelerators. As an entirety, the corresponding software stack must consider the hardware architecture of the specific accelerator to enhance the end-to-end performance. And we summarize the programming environments of neural network accelerators and optimizations in software stack. Finally, we comment the future trend of neural network accelerator and programming environments.
Progress on the controllable synthesis of all-inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals and their optoelectronic applications
J. Semicond. 2020, 41 (1): 011201Yi Yuan, Aiwei Tang. Progress on the controllable synthesis of all-inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals and their optoelectronic applications[J]. Journal of Semiconductors, 2020, 41(1): 011201. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/1/011201.
Y Yuan, A W Tang, Progress on the controllable synthesis of all-inorganic halide perovskite nanocrystals and their optoelectronic applications[J]. J. Semicond., 2020, 41(1): 011201. doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/41/1/011201.Export: BibTex EndNote
In the past five years, all-inorganic metal halide perovskite (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) nanocrystals have been intensely studied due to their outstanding optical properties and facile synthesis, which endow them with potential optoelectronic applications. In order to optimize their physical and chemical properties, different strategies have been developed to realize the controllable synthesis of CsPbX3 nanocrystals. In this short review, we firstly present a comprehensive and detailed summary of existed synthesis strategies of CsPbX3 nanocrystals and their analogues. Then, we introduce the regulations of several reaction parameters and their effects on the morphologies of CsPbX3 nanocrystals. At the same time, we provide stability improvement methods and representative applications. Finally, we propose the current challenges and future perspectives of the promising materials.
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