Review Articles
  • InP-based monolithically integrated few-mode devices

    Dan Lu, Yiming He, Zhaosong Li, Lingjuan Zhao, Wei Wang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (10): 101001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/10/101001

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    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) has become an increasingly important technology to further increase the transmission capacity of both optical-fiber-based communication networks, data centers and waveguide-based on-chip optical interconnects. Mode manipulation devices are indispensable in MDM system and have been widely studied in fiber, planar lightwave circuits, and silicon and InP based platforms. InP-based integration technology provides the easiest accessibility to bring together the functions of laser sources, modulators, and mode manipulation devices into a single chip, making it a promising solution for fully integrated few-mode transmitters in the MDM system. This paper reviews the recent progress in InP-based mode manipulation devices, including the few-mode converters, multiplexers, demultiplexers, and transmitters. The working principle, structures, and performance of InP-based few-mode devices are discussed.

  • A review: crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities for pressure sensors by using silicon migration technology

    Jiale Su, Xinwei Zhang, Guoping Zhou, Changfeng Xia, Wuqing Zhou, Qing'an Huang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (7): 071005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/071005

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    A silicon pressure sensor is one of the very first MEMS components appearing in the microsystem area. The market for the MEMS pressure sensor is rapidly growing due to consumer electronic applications in recent years. Requirements of the pressure sensors with low cost, low power consumption and high accuracy drive one to develop a novel technology. This paper first overviews the historical development of the absolute pressure sensor briefly. It then reviews the state of the art technology for fabricating crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities by using the silicon migration technology in detail. By using only one lithographic step, the membranes defined in lateral and vertical dimensions can be realized by the technology. Finally, applications of MEMS through using the silicon migration technology are summarized.

  • Concept and design of super junction devices

    Bo Zhang, Wentong Zhang, Ming Qiao, Zhenya Zhan, Zhaoji Li

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (2): 021001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/2/021001

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    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of RonVB2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of RonVB1.03.

  • Engineering in-plane silicon nanowire springs for highly stretchable electronics

    Zhaoguo Xue, Taige Dong, Zhimin Zhu, Yaolong Zhao, Ying Sun, Linwei Yu

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011001

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Crystalline silicon (c-Si) is unambiguously the most important semiconductor that underpins the development of modern microelectronics and optoelectronics, though the rigid and brittle nature of bulk c-Si makes it difficult to implement directly for stretchable applications. Fortunately, the one-dimensional (1D) geometry, or the line-shape, of Si nanowire (SiNW) can be engineered into elastic springs, which indicates an exciting opportunity to fabricate highly stretchable 1D c-Si channels. The implementation of such line-shape-engineering strategy demands both a tiny diameter of the SiNWs, in order to accommodate the strains under large stretching, and a precise growth location, orientation and path control to facilitate device integration. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progresses of an in-plane self-assembly growth of SiNW springs, via a new in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mechanism, where mono-like but elastic SiNW springs are produced by surface-running metal droplets that absorb amorphous Si thin film as precursor. Then, the critical growth control and engineering parameters, the mechanical properties of the SiNW springs and the prospects of developing c-Si based stretchable electronics, will be addressed. This efficient line-shape-engineering strategy of SiNW springs, accomplished via a low temperature batch-manufacturing, holds a strong promise to extend the legend of modern Si technology into the emerging stretchable electronic applications, where the high carrier mobility, excellent stability and established doping and passivation controls of c-Si can be well inherited.

  • Printable inorganic nanomaterials for flexible transparent electrodes: from synthesis to application

    Dingrun Wang, Yongfeng Mei, Gaoshan Huang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011002

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011002

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Printed and flexible electronics are definitely promising cutting-edge electronic technologies of the future. They offer a wide-variety of applications such as flexible circuits, flexible displays, flexible solar cells, skin-like pressure sensors, and radio frequency identification tags in our daily life. As the most-fundamental component of electronics, electrodes are made of conductive materials that play a key role in flexible and printed electronic devices. In this review, various inorganic conductive materials and strategies for obtaining highly conductive and uniform electrodes are demonstrated. Applications of printed electrodes fabricated via these strategies are also described. Nevertheless, there are a number of challenges yet to overcome to optimize the processing and performance of printed electrodes.

  • Materials and applications of bioresorbable electronics

    Xian Huang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011003

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011003

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    Bioresorbable electronics is a new type of electronics technology that can potentially lead to biodegradable and dissolvable electronic devices to replace current built-to-last circuits predominantly used in implantable devices and consumer electronics. Such devices dissolve in an aqueous environment in time periods from seconds to months, and generate biological safe products. This paper reviews materials, fabrication techniques, and applications of bioresorbable electronics, and aims to inspire more revolutionary bioresorbable systems that can generate broader social and economic impact. Existing challenges and potential solutions in developing bioresorbable electronics have also been presented to arouse more joint research efforts in this field to build systematic technology framework.

  • The applications of carbon nanomaterials in fiber-shaped energy storage devices

    Jingxia Wu, Yang Hong, Bingjie Wang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011004

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011004

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    As a promising candidate for future demand, fiber-shaped electrochemical energy storage devices, such as supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries have obtained considerable attention from academy to industry. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotube and graphene, have been widely investigated as electrode materials due to their merits of light weight, flexibility and high capacitance. In this review, recent progress of carbon nanomaterials in flexible fiber-shaped energy storage devices has been summarized in accordance with the development of fibrous electrodes, including the diversified electrode preparation, functional and intelligent device structure, and large-scale production of fibrous electrodes or devices.

  • Oxide-based thin film transistors for flexible electronics

    Yongli He, Xiangyu Wang, Ya Gao, Yahui Hou, Qing Wan

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011005

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    The continuous progress in thin film materials and devices has greatly promoted the development in the field of flexible electronics. As one of the most common thin film devices, thin film transistors (TFTs) are significant building blocks for flexible platforms. Flexible oxide-based TFTs are well compatible with flexible electronic systems due to low process temperature, high carrier mobility, and good uniformity. The present article is a review of the recent progress and major trends in the field of flexible oxide-based thin film transistors. First, an introduction of flexible electronics and flexible oxide-based thin film transistors is given. Next, we introduce oxide semiconductor materials and various flexible oxide-based TFTs classified by substrate materials including polymer plastics, paper sheets, metal foils, and flexible thin glass. Afterwards, applications of flexible oxide-based TFTs including bendable sensors, memories, circuits, and displays are presented. Finally, we give conclusions and a prospect for possible development trends.

  • Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Ping Sheng, Baomin Wang, Runwei Li

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011006

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011006

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices.

  • Graphene-based flexible and wearable electronics

    Tanmoy Das, Bhupendra K. Sharma, Ajit K. Katiyar, Jong-Hyun Ahn

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39 (1): 011007

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011007

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Graphene with an exceptional combination of electronic, optical and outstanding mechanical features has been proved to lead a completely different kind of 2-D electronics. The most exciting feature of graphene is its ultra-thin thickness, that can be conformally contacted to any kind of rough surface without losing much of its transparency and conductivity. Graphene has been explored demonstrating various prototype flexible electronic applications, however, its potentiality has been proven wherever transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) are needed in a flexible, stretchable format. Graphene-based TCEs in flexible electronic applications showed greatly superior performance over their conventionally available competitor indium tin oxide (ITO). Moreover, enormous applications have been emerging, especially in wearable devices that can be potentially used in our daily life as well as in biomedical areas. However, the production of high-quality, defect-free large area graphene is still a challenge and the main hurdle in the commercialization of flexible and wearable products. The objective of the present review paper is to summarize the progress made so far in graphene-based flexible and wearable applications. The current developments including challenges and future perspectives are also highlighted.

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