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  • High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system 3198

    Zeping Zhao, Jianguo Liu, Yu Liu, Ninghua Zhu

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(12): 121001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/12/121001

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    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems.

  • Resistive random access memory and its applications in storage and nonvolatile logic 3060

    Dongbin Zhu, Yi Li, Wensheng Shen, Zheng Zhou, Lifeng Liu, Xing Zhang

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(7): 071002

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/7/071002

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    The resistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been widely studied due to its excellent memory characteristics and great application potential in different fields. In this paper, resistive switching materials, switching mechanism, and memory characteristics of RRAM are discussed. Recent research progress of RRAM in high-density storage and nonvolatile logic application are addressed. Technological trends are also discussed.

  • Concept and design of super junction devices 2839

    Bo Zhang, Wentong Zhang, Ming Qiao, Zhenya Zhan, Zhaoji Li

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(2): 021001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/2/021001

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    The super junction (SJ) has been recognized as the " milestone” of the power MOSFET, which is the most important innovation concept of the voltage-sustaining layer (VSL). The basic structure of the SJ is a typical junction-type VSL (J-VSL) with the periodic N and P regions. However, the conventional VSL is a typical resistance-type VSL (R-VSL) with only an N or P region. It is a qualitative change of the VSL from the R-VSL to the J-VSL, introducing the bulk depletion to increase the doping concentration and optimize the bulk electric field of the SJ. This paper firstly summarizes the development of the SJ, and then the optimization theory of the SJ is discussed for both the vertical and the lateral devices, including the non-full depletion mode, the minimum specific on-resistance optimization method and the equivalent substrate model. The SJ concept breaks the conventional " silicon limit” relationship of RonVB2.5, showing a quasi-linear relationship of RonVB1.03.

  • Recent advances in flexible and wearable organic optoelectronic devices 2215

    Hong Zhu, Yang Shen, Yanqing Li, Jianxin Tang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(1): 011011

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011011

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    Flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices have been developing to a new stage due to their unique capacity for the possibility of a variety of wearable intelligent electronics, including bendable smartphones, foldable touch screens and antennas, paper-like displays, and curved and flexible solid-state lighting devices. Before extensive commercial applications, some issues still have to be solved for flexible and wearable optoelectronic devices. In this regard, this review concludes the newly emerging flexible substrate materials, transparent conductive electrodes, device architectures and light manipulation methods. Examples of these components applied for various kinds of devices are also summarized. Finally, perspectives about the bright future of flexible and wearable electronic devices are proposed.

  • A review: crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities for pressure sensors by using silicon migration technology 2080

    Jiale Su, Xinwei Zhang, Guoping Zhou, Changfeng Xia, Wuqing Zhou, Qing'an Huang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(7): 071005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/071005

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    A silicon pressure sensor is one of the very first MEMS components appearing in the microsystem area. The market for the MEMS pressure sensor is rapidly growing due to consumer electronic applications in recent years. Requirements of the pressure sensors with low cost, low power consumption and high accuracy drive one to develop a novel technology. This paper first overviews the historical development of the absolute pressure sensor briefly. It then reviews the state of the art technology for fabricating crystalline silicon membranes over sealed cavities by using the silicon migration technology in detail. By using only one lithographic step, the membranes defined in lateral and vertical dimensions can be realized by the technology. Finally, applications of MEMS through using the silicon migration technology are summarized.

  • Data-driven material discovery for photocatalysis: a short review 1955

    Jinbo Pan, Qimin Yan

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(7): 071001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/071001

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    In this short review, we introduce recent progress in the research field of data-driven material discovery and design for solar fuel generation. Construction of material databases under the materials genome initiative provides a great platform for material discovery and design by creating computational screening pipelines based on the materials’ descriptors. In the field of solar water splitting, data-driven computational discovery approach has been effective in making material predictions. When combined with synergistic and complimentary experimental efforts, high-throughput computations based on density functional theory showed great predictive power for accelerated discovery of inorganic compounds as functional materials for solar fuel generation. As an example, we introduce the theory–experiment joint discovery of a large set of metal oxide photoanode materials that have been theoretically predicted to be efficient candidates and soon verified by synergistic experimental fabrication and characterization processes. In the field of two-dimensional materials, the application of data-driven approach has realized the prediction of many promising candidates with suitable direct band gaps and optimal band edges for the generation of chemical fuels from sunlight, greatly expanding the number of theoretically predicted 2D photoelectrocatalysts that are awaiting experimental verification. We discuss the challenges for the continued discovery and design of novel bulk and 2D compounds for photocatalysis via a data-driven approach. At the end of this review, we provide a brief outlook for future material discoveries in the field of solar fuel generation.

  • Silicon-graphene photonic devices 1872

    Yanlong Yin, Jiang Li, Yang Xu, Hon Ki Tsang, Daoxin Dai

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(6): 061009

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/061009

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    Silicon photonics has attracted much attention because of the advantages of CMOS (complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor) compatibility, ultra-high integrated density, etc. Great progress has been achieved in the past decades. However, it is still not easy to realize active silicon photonic devices and circuits by utilizing the material system of pure silicon due to the limitation of the intrinsic properties of silicon. Graphene has been regarded as a promising material for optoelectronics due to its unique properties and thus provides a potential option for realizing active photonic integrated devices on silicon. In this paper, we present a review on recent progress of some silicon-graphene photonic devices for photodetection, all-optical modulation, as well as thermal-tuning.

  • Recent progress in synthesis of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride 1702

    Haolin Wang, Yajuan Zhao, Yong Xie, Xiaohua Ma, Xingwang Zhang

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(3): 031003

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/3/031003

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    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have recently received a great deal of attention due to their unique structures and fascinating properties, as well as their potential applications. 2D hexagonal boron nitride (2D h-BN), an insulator with excellent thermal stability, chemical inertness, and unique electronic and optical properties, and a band gap of 5.97 eV, is considered to be an ideal candidate for integration with other 2D materials. Nevertheless, the controllable growth of high-quality 2D h-BN is still a great challenge. A comprehensive overview of the progress that has been made in the synthesis of 2D h-BN is presented, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of various synthesis approaches. In addition, the electronic, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, heterostructures, and related applications of 2D h-BN are discussed.

  • Recent progress of dopant-free organic hole-transporting materials in perovskite solar cells 1569

    Dongxue Liu, Yongsheng Liu

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(1): 011005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/1/011005

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    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have undergone especially intense research and transformation over the past seven years due to their enormous progress in conversion efficiencies. In this perspective, we review the latest developments of conventional perovskite solar cells with a main focus on dopant-free organic hole transporting materials (HTMs). Regarding the rapid progress of perovskite solar cells, stability of devices using dopant-free HTMs are also discussed to help readers understand the challenges and opportunities in high performance and stable perovskite solar cells .

  • Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers 1537

    Yujia Zhang, Haiyang Wang, Lei Zhang, Xiaomeng Chen, Yu Guo, Huabin Sun, Yun Li

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(11): 111001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/11/111001

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    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications.

  • Recent advances in preparation,properties and device applications of two-dimensional h-BN and its vertical heterostructures 1454

    Huihui Yang, Feng Gao, Mingjin Dai, Dechang Jia, Yu Zhou, Ping'an Hu

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(3): 031004

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/3/031004

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have attracted tremendous interest due to their atom-thickness structures and excellent physical properties. h-BN has predominant advantages as the dielectric substrate in FET devices due to its outstanding properties such as chemically inert surface, being free of dangling bonds and surface charge traps, especially the large-band-gap insulativity. h-BN involved vertical heterostructures have been widely exploited during the past few years. Such heterostructures adopting h-BN as dielectric layers exhibit enhanced electronic performance, and provide further possibilities for device engineering. Besides, a series of intriguing physical phenomena are observed in certain vertical heterostructures, such as superlattice potential induced replication of Dirac points, band gap tuning, Hofstadter butterfly states, gate-dependent pseudospin mixing. Herein we focus on the rapid developments of h-BN synthesis and fabrication of vertical heterostructures devices based on h-BN, and review the novel properties as well as the potential applications of the heterostructures composed of h-BN.

  • Emerging technologies in Si active photonics 1453

    Xiaoxin Wang, Jifeng Liu

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(6): 061001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/061001

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Silicon photonics for synergistic electronic–photonic integration has achieved remarkable progress in the past two decades. Active photonic devices, including lasers, modulators, and photodetectors, are the key challenges for Si photonics to meet the requirement of high bandwidth and low power consumption in photonic datalinks. Here we review recent efforts and progress in high-performance active photonic devices on Si, focusing on emerging technologies beyond conventional foundry-ready Si photonics devices. For emerging laser sources, we will discuss recent progress towards efficient monolithic Ge lasers, mid-infrared GeSn lasers, and high-performance InAs quantum dot lasers on Si for data center applications in the near future. We will then review novel modulator materials and devices beyond the free carrier plasma dispersion effect in Si, including GeSi and graphene electro-absorption modulators and plasmonic-organic electro-optical modulators, to achieve ultralow power and high speed modulation. Finally, we discuss emerging photodetectors beyond epitaxial Ge p–i–n photodiodes, including GeSn mid-infrared photodetectors, all-Si plasmonic Schottky infrared photodetectors, and Si quanta image sensors for non-avalanche, low noise single photon detection and photon counting. These emerging technologies, though still under development, could make a significant impact on the future of large-scale electronicSilicon photonics for synergistic electronic-photonic integration has achieved remarkable progress in the past two decades. Active photonic devices, including lasers, modulators, and photodetectors, are the key challenges for Si photonics to meet the requirement of high bandwidth and low power consumption in photonic datalinks. Here we review recent efforts and progress in high-performance active photonic devices on Si, focusing on emerging technologies beyond conventional foundry-ready Si photonics devices. For emerging laser sources, we will discuss recent progress towards efficient monolithic Ge lasers, mid-infrared GeSn lasers, and high-performance InAs quantum dot lasers on Si for data center applications in the near future. We will then review novel modulator materials and devices beyond the free carrier plasma dispersion effect in Si, including GeSi and graphene electro-absorption modulators and plasmonic-organic electro–optical modulators, to achieve ultralow power and high speed modulation. Finally, we discuss emerging photodetectors beyond epitaxial Ge p–i–n photodiodes, including GeSn mid-infrared photodetectors, all-Si plasmonic Schottky infrared photodetectors, and Si quanta image sensors for non-avalanche, low noise single photon detection and photon counting. These emerging technologies, though still under development, could make a significant impact on the future of large-scale electronic–photonic integration with performance inaccessible from conventional Si photonics technologies-photonic integration with performance inaccessible from conventional Si photonics technologies.

  • Devices and applications of van der Waals heterostructures 1435

    Chao Li, Peng Zhou, David Wei Zhang

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(3): 031005

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/3/031005

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    Van der Waals heterostructures, composed of individual two-dimensional material have been developing extremely fast. Synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures without the constraint of lattice matching and processing compatibility provides an ideal platform for fundamental research and new device exploitation. We review the approach of synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, discuss the property of heterostructures and thoroughly illustrate the functional van der Waals heterostructures used in novel electronic and photoelectronic device.

  • Recent progress in Pb-free stable inorganic double halide perovskites 1424

    Zhenzhu Li, Wanjian Yin

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(7): 071003

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/7/071003

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    Although the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of CH3NH3PbI3-based solar cells has achieved 22.1%, which is comparable to commercialized thin-film CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells, the long-term stability is the main obstacle for the commercialization of perovskite solar cells. Recent efforts have been made to explore alternative inorganic perovskites, which were assumed to have better stability than organic-inorganic hybrid CH3NH3PbI3. In this short review, we will keep up with experiments and summarize recent progresses of inorganic double halide perovskite, in particular to Cs2AgBiBr6, Cs2AgInCl6, Cs2InBiBr6 and their family members. We will also share our opinions on the promise of such class of materials.

  • Optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and heterostructures 1415

    Nengjie Huo, Yujue Yang, Jingbo Li

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(3): 031002

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/3/031002

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    2D materials including graphene and TMDs have proven interesting physical properties and promising optoelectronic applications. We reviewed the growth, characterization and optoelectronics based on 2D TMDs and their heterostructures, and demonstrated their unique and high quality of performances. For example, we observed the large mobility, fast response and high photo-responsivity in MoS2, WS2 and WSe2 phototransistors, as well as the novel performances in vdW heterostructures such as the strong interlayer coupling, am-bipolar and rectifying behaviour, and the obvious photovoltaic effect. It is being possible that 2D family materials could play an increasingly important role in the future nano- and opto-electronics, more even than traditional semiconductors such as silicon.

  • Recent progress of flexible and wearable strain sensors for human-motion monitoring 1359

    Gang Ge, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Xiaochen Dong

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(1): 011012

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011012

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    With the rapid development of human artificial intelligence and the inevitably expanding markets, the past two decades have witnessed an urgent demand for the flexible and wearable devices, especially the flexible strain sensors. Flexible strain sensors, incorporated the merits of stretchability, high sensitivity and skin-mountable, are emerging as an extremely charming domain in virtue of their promising applications in artificial intelligent realms, human-machine systems and health-care devices. In this review, we concentrate on the transduction mechanisms, building blocks of flexible physical sensors, subsequently property optimization in terms of device structures and sensing materials in the direction of practical applications. Perspectives on the existing challenges are also highlighted in the end.

  • GaN-based green laser diodes 1341

    Lingrong Jiang, Jianping Liu, Aiqin Tian, Yang Cheng, Zengcheng Li, Liqun Zhang, Shuming Zhang, Deyao Li, M. Ikeda, Hui Yang

    J. Semicond.  2016, 37(11): 111001

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/37/11/111001

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    Recently, many groups have focused on the development of GaN-based green LDs to meet the demand for laser display. Great progresses have been achieved in the past few years even that many challenges exist. In this article, we analysis the challenges to develop GaN-based green LDs, and then the approaches to improve the green LD structure in the aspect of crystalline quality, electrical properties, and epitaxial layer structure are reviewed, especially the work we have done.

  • Recent progress in stability of perovskite solar cells 1305

    Xiaojun Qin, Zhiguo Zhao, Yidan Wang, Junbo Wu, Qi Jiang, Jingbi You

    J. Semicond.  2017, 38(1): 011002

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/38/1/011002

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Perovskite solar cells have attracted significant attention in just the past few years in solar cell research fields, where the power conversion efficiency was beyond 22. 1%. Now, the most important challenge for perovskite solar cells in practical applications is the stability issue. In this mini-review, we will summarize the degradation mechanism of perovskite solar cells, including the perovskite material itself and also the interfaces. While we also provide our opinion on improving the stability of perovskite solar cells.

  • Flexible devices: from materials, architectures to applications 1287

    Mingzhi Zou, Yue Ma, Xin Yuan, Yi Hu, Jie Liu, Zhong Jin

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(1): 011010

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/1/011010

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Flexible devices, such as flexible electronic devices and flexible energy storage devices, have attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years for their potential applications in modern human lives. The development of flexible devices is moving forward rapidly, as the innovation of methods and manufacturing processes has greatly encouraged the research of flexible devices. This review focuses on advanced materials, architecture designs and abundant applications of flexible devices, and discusses the problems and challenges in current situations of flexible devices. We summarize the discovery of novel materials and the design of new architectures for improving the performance of flexible devices. Finally, we introduce the applications of flexible devices as key components in real life.

  • Dopant atoms as quantum components in silicon nanoscale devices 1243

    Xiaosong Zhao, Weihua Han, Hao Wang, Liuhong Ma, Xiaoming Li, Wang Zhang, Wei Yan, Fuhua Yang

    J. Semicond.  2018, 39(6): 061003

    doi: 10.1088/1674-4926/39/6/061003

    Abstract Full Text PDF Get Citation

    Recent progress in nanoscale fabrication allows many fundamental studies of the few dopant atoms in various semiconductor nanostructures. Since the size of nanoscale devices has touched the limit of the nature, a single dopant atom may dominate the performance of the device. Besides, the quantum computing considered as a future choice beyond Moore's law also utilizes dopant atoms as functional units. Therefore, the dopant atoms will play a significant role in the future novel nanoscale devices. This review focuses on the study of few dopant atoms as quantum components in silicon nanoscale device. The control of the number of dopant atoms and unique quantum transport characteristics induced by dopant atoms are presented. It can be predicted that the development of nanoelectronics based on dopant atoms will pave the way for new possibilities in quantum electronics.

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